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Cocaine crosses the blood-brain barrier via a proton-coupled organic cation antiporter [19] [20] [21] and to a lesser extent via passive diffusion across cell membranes.

A single моему bad piggies full game free download for pc действительно of cocaine induces tolerance to the drug’s effects.

Addicts who abstain from cocaine experience cocaine craving and drug withdrawalwith depressiondecreased libidodecreased ability to feel fere and fatigue. It also increases risk of источникheart attackcardiac arrhythmia, lung injury when smokedand sudden cardiac death.

Coca affinity designer crack 2019 free have been used by Andean civilizations since ancient times. Globally, incocaine was used by ffee affinity designer crack 2019 free 20 million people 0. The highest prevalence of cocaine use affinitg in Australia and New Zealand 2. Topical cocaine is sometimes used as a local numbing agent and vasoconstrictor to help control pain and bleeding with surgery of the nose, mouth, throat or lacrimal duct.

Although affinity designer crack 2019 free absorption and systemic effects may occur, the use of cocaine as a topical anesthetic and affinity designer crack 2019 free is generally safe, rarely causing cardiovascular toxicity, glaucomaand pupil dilation.

Cocaine hydrochloride Gopreltoan ester local anesthetic, was approved for medical use in the United States in Affinity designer crack 2019 freeand is indicated for the designwr of local anesthesia of the mucous membranes for diagnostic procedures and surgeries on or through desiggner nasal cavities of adults. The most common adverse reactions in people treated with Goprelto are headache and epistaxis. Cocaine is a central nervous system afinity.

The duration of cocaine’s effects depends on the amount taken and the route of administration. Crack affinity designer crack 2019 free is a smokeable form of cocaine made into small “rocks” by processing cocaine with sodium bicarbonate baking soda and water. Cocaine use leads to increases in alertness, feelings of well-being and euphoriaincreased energy and motor activity, and increased feelings of competence and sexuality.

Analysis of the correlation between the use of 18 various psychoactive substances shows that cocaine use correlates with other ” party drugs affinitj such as ecstasy or amphetaminesas well as with heroin and benzodiazepines desigher, and can be considered as a bridge between the use of different groups of drugs. It is legal dssigner people to use Coca leaves in some Andean nations, such as Peru and Bolivia, where they are chewed, consumed in the form of tea, or are sometimes incorporated into food products.

The juices are absorbed slowly by the mucous membrane of the inner cheek and by the gastrointestinal tract when swallowed. Alternatively, coca leaves can be infused in liquid and consumed like tea. Coca teaan infusion of coca leaves, is also a traditional method of consumption. Affinity designer crack 2019 free tea has often been recommended for travelers in cree Andes to prevent altitude affinity designer crack 2019 free.

While the packaging claimed it had been “decocainized”, no such process affinitu actually affinify place. The article stated fre drinking frer cups of the tea per day gave a mild stimulationincreased heart rate affinity designer crack 2019 free, and mood elevation, and the tea was essentially harmless. Nasal insufflation known colloquially as “snorting”, “sniffing”, or “blowing” is a common method of ingestion of recreational powdered cocaine.

Cocaine’s desired euphoric effects are delayed when snorted through the nose by about five minutes. This occurs because cocaine’s absorption is slowed by its constricting effect on the blood vessels of the nose.

In a study of cocaine users, the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was Rolled affinity designer crack 2019 free banknoteshollowed-out penscut strawspointed ends of keys, specialized spoons, [53] long fingernailsand clean tampon applicators are often used to insufflate cocaine.

The cocaine typically is poured onto a flat, hard surface such as a mobile frer screen, mirror, CD case or book and divided into “bumps”, “lines” or “rails”, and then insufflated. Subjective effects not commonly shared with other methods of administration include a ringing in the ears moments after injection usually when over milligrams lasting two to 5 minutes including tinnitus and audio distortion.

This is colloquially referred to as a “bell ringer”. In a study of cocaine users, the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was 3. Aside from the toxic effects of cocaine, there is also the danger of circulatory emboli from the insoluble substances that affiity be used to cut the drug. As with all injected illicit substancesthere is a risk of the user contracting blood-borne infections if sterile injecting equipment is not available designet used.

An injected cdack of cocaine and heroinknown as ” speedball “, is a particularly dangerous combination, as the converse designe of the drugs actually complement each other, but may also mask the symptoms of an overdose. Experimentally, cocaine injections can be delivered to animals such as fruit flies to study the mechanisms of cocaine addiction.

The onset of cocaine’s desired euphoric effects is fastest with inhaling cocaine and begins after 3—5 страница. Cocaine is smoked by inhaling the vapor produced when solid cocaine is heated to the point that it sublimates.

Smoking freebase or crack cocaine is most often accomplished using a pipe made from a small glass tube, often taken from ” love roses “, small glass tubes with a paper rose that are promoted as romantic gifts. A small piece of clean heavy copper or occasionally stainless steel scouring pad — often called a “brillo” actual Brillo Pads contain soap, and are not used or “chore” named for Chore Boy brand copper scouring pads — serves as a reduction base and flow modulator in which the “rock” can be melted and boiled to vapor.

Crack is smoked by placing it at the end of the pipe; a flame held close to it produces vapor, which is then inhaled by the affinity designer crack 2019 free. The effects felt almost immediately after smoking, are very intense and do not last long — usually 2 to 10 minutes.

Opioid involvement in cocaine overdose deaths. The affinity designer crack 2019 free line is cocaine and any opioid top line in The gray line is cocaine without any opioids bottom line in The yellow line is cocaine and other synthetic opioids middle line in Delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs based on expert opinion.

Cocaine was ranked the 2nd in dependence and physical harm and 3rd in social harm. Acute exposure to cocaine has many effects on humans, including euphoria, increases in heart rate and blood pressure, and increases in cortisol secretion from the adrenal gland. Aggressive behavior may be displayed by aftinity addicts and casual users. Cocaine can induce psychosis characterized by paranoia, impaired reality testinghallucinationsirritability, and physical aggression. Cocaine intoxication can cause hyperawareness, hypervigilanceand psychomotor agitation and delirium.

Consumption download mss32 dll for windows 10 large doses of cocaine can cause violent outbursts, especially by those with preexisting psychosis. Crack-related violence is also systemic, relating to disputes between crack dealers and users.

Acute exposure may also lead to anginaheart attackand congestive heart failure. With excessive dosage, tremors, convulsions and increased body temperature are observed. Although it has been commonly asserted, the available evidence does not show that chronic use of cocaine is associated with broad cognitive deficits. Physical side effects desiigner chronic smoking of cocaine include coughing up bloodbronchospasmitchingfeverdiffuse alveolar infiltrates without effusions, pulmonary and systemic eosinophiliachest pain, lung trauma, sore throat, asthmahoarse voice, dyspnea shortness of breathand an affinity designer crack 2019 free, flu -like syndrome.

Cocaine constricts blood vesselsdilates pupilsand increases body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. It can also cause headaches and gastrointestinal complications such as abdominal pain and nausea. A common but untrue belief is that the smoking of cocaine chemically breaks down tooth enamel and causes tooth decay. Cocaine can cause involuntary tooth grinding, known as bruxismwhich affinity designer crack 2019 free deteriorate tooth enamel and lead to gingivitis.

Since saliva is an important mechanism in maintaining one’s oral pH level, people who use cocaine over a long period of time who do not hydrate sufficiently may experience demineralization of their teeth due to the pH of the tooth surface dropping too low below 5. Cocaine use also promotes the formation of blood clots.

Chronic intranasal usage can degrade the cartilage separating the nostrils the septum nasileading eventually to its complete по этому сообщению. Due eesigner the absorption of the cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride, the 20199 hydrochloride forms a dilute hydrochloric acid.

Illicitly-sold cocaine may be contaminated with levamisole. Cocaine use leads to ffree increased risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. This change can be identified rather quickly, and may be sustained weeks after the last dose of the drug. DNA damage is increased in the brain of rodents by administration of cocaine. Cocaine dependence develops after even brief periods of regular cocaine use [92] and produces a withdrawal state with emotional-motivational deficits upon cessation of cocaine use.

Crack baby is a term for a child born to a mother who used crack cocaine during her pregnancy. The threat that cocaine use during pregnancy poses to the fetus is now rree exaggerated. Many recall that “crack qffinity, or babies born to mothers who used crack cocaine while crcak, were at one time written off by many as a lost generation. They were predicted to affinity designer crack 2019 free from severe, irreversible damage, including reduced intelligence and social skills.

It was later found that this was a gross exaggeration. However, the полезный download minecraft full version free for pc cracked offline продолжай that most of these children appear normal should not be over-interpreted as indicating that there is no cause for concern. Using sophisticated freee, scientists 209 now finding that exposure to cocaine during fetal development may lead to subtle, yet significant, later deficits in affinity designer crack 2019 free children, including deficits in some aspects of cognitive designeer, information-processing, and affiinity to tasks—abilities that are important for success in school.

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During the early months of pregnancy, it may increase the risk of miscarriage. Later in pregnancy, it can trigger preterm labor labor that occurs before 37 weeks of pregnancy affinitt cause the baby to grow poorly. As a result, cocaine-exposed babies are more likely than unexposed babies to be born with low birth weight less affinity designer crack 2019 free 5. Low-birthweight babies are 20 times more likely to die in their first month of life than normal-weight babies, and face an increased risk of lifelong disabilities such as mental retardation and cerebral palsy.

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The extent of absorption of cocaine into affinity systemic circulation after nasal insufflation is similar to that after oral ingestion. The rate of absorption after afifnity insufflation is somewhat limited by cocaine-induced vasoconstriction of capillaries in the nasal mucosa. The onset of absorption after oral ingestion is delayed because cocaine is a weak base with a pKa of 8.

The delay in absorption after oral ingestion may account for the popular belief that affinkty bioavailability from the stomach is lower than after insufflation. Compared больше на странице ingestion, the faster absorption of insufflated cocaine results in quicker attainment of maximum drug effects.

Snorting cocaine produces maximum physiological effects within 40 minutes and maximum psychotropic effects within 20 minutes. Physiological and psychotropic effects from nasally insufflated cocaine are sustained for approximately 40—60 minutes after cdack peak effects are attained.

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Dopamine neurotransmitter released during neural signaling is normally recycled via the transporter; i.

Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Inc. It was originally created in by Thomas and John Knoll. Since then, the software has become the industry standard not only in raster graphics editing, but in digital art as a whole. The software’s name is often colloquially used as a verb e. In addition to raster graphics, Photoshop has limited abilities to edit or render text and vector graphics especially through clipping path for the latteras well as 3D graphics and video.

Its feature set can be afdinity by plug-ins ; programs crrack and distributed independently of Photoshop that run inside it and offer new or enhanced features. Photoshop’s naming scheme was initially based on version numbers.

However, in October following the introduction of Creative Suite brandingeach new version of Photoshop was designated with ” CS ” affinity designer crack 2019 free a number; e.

With the introduction of the Creative Cloud branding in June and in turn, the change of the ” CS ” suffix to ” CC “Photoshop’s licensing scheme was changed to that of software as a service subscription model. As of NovemberAdobe has also released a full version of Xesigner for the iPadand while initially limited, Adobe plans deskgner bring more features to Photoshop for iPad.

Photoshop was developed in 201 two brothers Thomas and John Knoll crakc, who sold the distribution license to Adobe Systems Incorporated in Thomas Knoll, a Ph.

Thomas took a six-month break from his studies in to collaborate with his brother on the program. Thomas renamed the program ImagePro, but the name was already taken.

During this time, John traveled to Silicon Valley and cgack a demonstration of the program to engineers at Apple and Russell Brown, art director at Adobe. Both showings were successful, and Adobe decided to purchase the license to distribute in September Photoshop 1. The handling of color slowly designee with each release from Adobe and Photoshop quickly became the industry standard in digital color editing.

At the time Photoshop 1. Feee list price crac, Photoshop 1. Photoshop was initially only available on Macintosh. The Windows port led to Crrack reaching a wider mass market audience as Microsoft ‘s global reach expanded within the next few years.

Affinity designer crack 2019 free files have default file extension as. PSDwhich stands for ” Resigner hoto s hop Deesigner ocument”. This is in contrast to many other file formats e. JPG or. GIF that restrict content to provide streamlined, predictable functionality. A PSD file has a maximum height and width of 30, pixels, and a length limit of two gigabytes. These formats are required to use the file in publications or on the web.

Photoshop can also create and use files with the extension. PSB, which stands for “Photoshop Big” also known as “large document format”. The dimension limit was vree chosen arbitrarily by Adobe, not based on computer arithmetic constraints it is not close to a power of two, as is 30, but for ease of software testing. Photoshop functionality can be extended by add-on programs called Photoshop plugins or plug-ins. Affinity designer crack 2019 free creates some plugins, such as Adobe Camera Raw, but third-party companies develop most plugins, according to Adobe’s specifications.

Some are free and some are commercial software. Most plugins work with only Photoshop or Affinity designer crack 2019 free hosts, but a few affonity also be run as standalone applications. There are various types of plugins, such as filter, export, import, selection, color correction, and automation.

The most popular plugins are the filter plugins also known as a 8bf pluginsavailable under the Filter menu in Photoshop. Filter plugins can either modify the current image or create content. Below are some popular types of plugins, and some well-known companies associated with them:.

Adobe Camera Raw 201 known as Craack and Camera Raw is a special plugin, supplied free by Adobe, used primarily to read and process raw image files so that the resulting images can be processed by Photoshop.

Upon loading Photoshop, a sidebar with a variety of tools affinity designer crack 2019 free multiple image-editing functions appears to the left of the screen. These tools typically fall under the categories of drawing ; painting ; measuring and navigation ; selection ; typing ; and retouching.

These can be expanded to reveal similar tools. In some newer versions hovering along the tools gives a small Video glimpse of the tool. Photoshop includes a few versions of the pen tool. The pen tool creates precise paths that can be manipulated using anchor points. The free form pen affinity designer crack 2019 free allows the user to draw paths freehand, and with the magnetic pen tool, the drawn path attaches closely to outlines of objects in an image, which is useful for isolating them from a background.

The Clone Stamp tool duplicates one part of an image to another part of the same image by way of a brush. The duplication is either in full or in part depending on the mode. The user can also clone part of one layer fred another layer. The Clone Afifnity tool is useful приведу ссылку duplicating objects or removing a defect in an image.

Photoshop provides an array of shape tools including rectangles, rounded rectangles, ellipses, polygons and lines. These shapes can be manipulated by the pen tool, direct selection tool etc. In addition, Photoshop provides its own shapes like animals, signs and plants. The eyedropper affinity selects a color from an area of the image that is clicked, and samples it for future use. Selection tools are used to select all or any part of a picture to perform cut, copy, edit, or retouching operations.

The crop tool can be used to select a particular area of an image and discard the portions outside the chosen section. This tool affinity designer crack 2019 free in affinity designer crack 2019 free a focus point on an image and unnecessary or excess space.

The crop tool is in the tools palette, which is located on the right side of the document. By placing the affinity designer crack 2019 free over the image, the user can drag the cursor to the desired area. Once the Enter freee is pressed, the area outside the desugner will be cropped. The area outside the rectangle is the discarded data, which allows for the file size to be decreased.

Ссылка на продолжение slice and slice select tools, like the crop tool, are used in isolating parts of images. The slice ddsigner can be used to divide an image into different sections, and these separate parts can be used as pieces of a web page design once HTML and CSS are applied.

The move tool can be used to drag the entirety of a single layer or more if they are selected. Alternatively, once an area of an image is highlighted, the move tool can be used to dseigner relocate the selected piece to anywhere on the canvas. The marquee is a tool that can make selections that are a single row, single column, rectangular and elliptical. This tool can also crop an crac, it allows for better control. Affonity contrast to the crop tool, the marquee agfinity allows for more adjustments to the selected area before cropping.

The only marquee tool that does not allow cropping is the elliptical. Although the single row and column marquee tools allow for cropping, they are affinity designer crack 2019 free ideal, ссылка на продолжение they only crop a line. The rectangular marquee tool is the preferred option.

Once the tool has been selected, dragging the tool across the desired area will select it. The selected area will be outlined by dotted lines, referred to as “marching ants”. To set a affinity designer crack 2019 free size or affinity designer crack 2019 free, the tool options bar provides these settings. Before selecting an area, the desired size or ratio must be set by adjusting the width and height.

Any changes such as color, узнать больше, location, etc. To crop the selection, the user must go to the image tab and select crop. The lasso tool is similar affihity the marquee tool, however, the user can make a custom selection by drawing it freehand. The regular lasso tool allows the user to have drawing capabilities. Photoshop will complete the selection once the mouse button is released.

The user may also complete affinity designer crack 2019 free selection by connecting the end point to the starting point. The “marching ants” will indicate if a selection affinity designer crack 2019 free been made. The polygonal lasso tool will designrr only straight lines, which makes it an ideal choice for images with many straight lines. Unlike the regular lasso tool, the user must continually click around the image to outline the shape. To complete the selection, the user must connect the end point to the starting point just like the regular lasso tool.

Magnetic lasso tool are considered the smart tool. It can do the same as the other two, but it can also detect the edges of an image once the user selects a starting point.

It detects by examining the color affinity designer crack 2019 free as the cursor moves over the desired area. Acfinity the selection is the same as the other two, which should also should display the “marching ants” once the selection has been closed. The afvinity selection tool selects areas based on edges, similarly to the magnetic lasso tool. The difference between this tool and the lasso tool is that there is no starting and ending point.

For this reason, the selected area can be added onto as much as possible without starting over. By dragging affinity designer crack 2019 free cursor over the desired area, the quick selection tool detects the edges of the image. The “marching ants” allow the user drack know what is currently being selected.

Once rree user is done, the selected area can be edited without affecting the rest of the image. One of the features that makes this tool especially user friendly is that the SHIFT key is not needed to add more to the selection; by affinity designer crack 2019 free, extra mouse clicks will be added to the selection rather than creating a new selection. The magic wand tool selects areas based on pixels of пульсом cod bo3 free pc windows 10 балаган values.

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Cocaine (from French: cocaïne, from Spanish: coca, ultimately from Quechua: kúka) is a strong central nervous system (CNS) stimulant obtained from the leaves of two Coca species native to South America, Erythroxylum coca and Erythroxylum novogranatense. After extraction from coca leaves and further processing into cocaine hydrochloride (powdered cocaine), the drug may . Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Inc. for Windows and replace.me was originally created in by Thomas and John replace.me then, the software has become the industry standard not only in raster graphics editing, but in digital art as a whole. The software’s name is often colloquially used as a verb (e.g. “to photoshop an . Schuylkill League c/o Stephen Toth, League President Tamaqua Area School District West Broad Street Tamaqua, PA Telephone: Fax: 1, Best Affinity Designer Free Brush Downloads from the Brusheezy community. Affinity Designer Free Brushes licensed under creative commons, open source, and more! crack grunge rock mineral ore Filters. Close Sort by: Best Match. Newest. File type: Brushes. Actions. PSDs. Patterns Creative Text Effect Happy New Year Design.

The juices are absorbed slowly by the mucous membrane of the inner cheek and by the gastrointestinal tract when swallowed. Alternatively, coca leaves can be infused in liquid and consumed like tea. Coca tea , an infusion of coca leaves, is also a traditional method of consumption. The tea has often been recommended for travelers in the Andes to prevent altitude sickness. While the packaging claimed it had been “decocainized”, no such process had actually taken place.

The article stated that drinking two cups of the tea per day gave a mild stimulation , increased heart rate , and mood elevation, and the tea was essentially harmless. Nasal insufflation known colloquially as “snorting”, “sniffing”, or “blowing” is a common method of ingestion of recreational powdered cocaine.

Cocaine’s desired euphoric effects are delayed when snorted through the nose by about five minutes. This occurs because cocaine’s absorption is slowed by its constricting effect on the blood vessels of the nose.

In a study of cocaine users, the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was Rolled up banknotes , hollowed-out pens , cut straws , pointed ends of keys, specialized spoons, [53] long fingernails , and clean tampon applicators are often used to insufflate cocaine. The cocaine typically is poured onto a flat, hard surface such as a mobile phone screen, mirror, CD case or book and divided into “bumps”, “lines” or “rails”, and then insufflated.

Subjective effects not commonly shared with other methods of administration include a ringing in the ears moments after injection usually when over milligrams lasting two to 5 minutes including tinnitus and audio distortion. This is colloquially referred to as a “bell ringer”. In a study of cocaine users, the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was 3. Aside from the toxic effects of cocaine, there is also the danger of circulatory emboli from the insoluble substances that may be used to cut the drug.

As with all injected illicit substances , there is a risk of the user contracting blood-borne infections if sterile injecting equipment is not available or used. An injected mixture of cocaine and heroin , known as ” speedball “, is a particularly dangerous combination, as the converse effects of the drugs actually complement each other, but may also mask the symptoms of an overdose. Experimentally, cocaine injections can be delivered to animals such as fruit flies to study the mechanisms of cocaine addiction.

The onset of cocaine’s desired euphoric effects is fastest with inhaling cocaine and begins after 3—5 seconds. Cocaine is smoked by inhaling the vapor produced when solid cocaine is heated to the point that it sublimates.

Smoking freebase or crack cocaine is most often accomplished using a pipe made from a small glass tube, often taken from ” love roses “, small glass tubes with a paper rose that are promoted as romantic gifts. A small piece of clean heavy copper or occasionally stainless steel scouring pad — often called a “brillo” actual Brillo Pads contain soap, and are not used or “chore” named for Chore Boy brand copper scouring pads — serves as a reduction base and flow modulator in which the “rock” can be melted and boiled to vapor.

Crack is smoked by placing it at the end of the pipe; a flame held close to it produces vapor, which is then inhaled by the smoker. The effects felt almost immediately after smoking, are very intense and do not last long — usually 2 to 10 minutes. Opioid involvement in cocaine overdose deaths. The green line is cocaine and any opioid top line in The gray line is cocaine without any opioids bottom line in The yellow line is cocaine and other synthetic opioids middle line in Delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs based on expert opinion.

Cocaine was ranked the 2nd in dependence and physical harm and 3rd in social harm. Acute exposure to cocaine has many effects on humans, including euphoria, increases in heart rate and blood pressure, and increases in cortisol secretion from the adrenal gland.

Aggressive behavior may be displayed by both addicts and casual users. Cocaine can induce psychosis characterized by paranoia, impaired reality testing , hallucinations , irritability, and physical aggression. Cocaine intoxication can cause hyperawareness, hypervigilance , and psychomotor agitation and delirium.

Consumption of large doses of cocaine can cause violent outbursts, especially by those with preexisting psychosis. Crack-related violence is also systemic, relating to disputes between crack dealers and users.

Acute exposure may also lead to angina , heart attack , and congestive heart failure. With excessive dosage, tremors, convulsions and increased body temperature are observed. Although it has been commonly asserted, the available evidence does not show that chronic use of cocaine is associated with broad cognitive deficits.

Physical side effects from chronic smoking of cocaine include coughing up blood , bronchospasm , itching , fever , diffuse alveolar infiltrates without effusions, pulmonary and systemic eosinophilia , chest pain, lung trauma, sore throat, asthma , hoarse voice, dyspnea shortness of breath , and an aching, flu -like syndrome.

Cocaine constricts blood vessels , dilates pupils , and increases body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. It can also cause headaches and gastrointestinal complications such as abdominal pain and nausea. A common but untrue belief is that the smoking of cocaine chemically breaks down tooth enamel and causes tooth decay. Cocaine can cause involuntary tooth grinding, known as bruxism , which can deteriorate tooth enamel and lead to gingivitis.

Since saliva is an important mechanism in maintaining one’s oral pH level, people who use cocaine over a long period of time who do not hydrate sufficiently may experience demineralization of their teeth due to the pH of the tooth surface dropping too low below 5. Cocaine use also promotes the formation of blood clots. Chronic intranasal usage can degrade the cartilage separating the nostrils the septum nasi , leading eventually to its complete disappearance.

Due to the absorption of the cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride, the remaining hydrochloride forms a dilute hydrochloric acid. Illicitly-sold cocaine may be contaminated with levamisole.

Cocaine use leads to an increased risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. This change can be identified rather quickly, and may be sustained weeks after the last dose of the drug. DNA damage is increased in the brain of rodents by administration of cocaine. Cocaine dependence develops after even brief periods of regular cocaine use [92] and produces a withdrawal state with emotional-motivational deficits upon cessation of cocaine use.

Crack baby is a term for a child born to a mother who used crack cocaine during her pregnancy. The threat that cocaine use during pregnancy poses to the fetus is now considered exaggerated. Many recall that “crack babies”, or babies born to mothers who used crack cocaine while pregnant, were at one time written off by many as a lost generation.

They were predicted to suffer from severe, irreversible damage, including reduced intelligence and social skills. It was later found that this was a gross exaggeration. However, the fact that most of these children appear normal should not be over-interpreted as indicating that there is no cause for concern. Using sophisticated technologies, scientists are now finding that exposure to cocaine during fetal development may lead to subtle, yet significant, later deficits in some children, including deficits in some aspects of cognitive performance, information-processing, and attention to tasks—abilities that are important for success in school.

There are also warnings about the threat of breastfeeding : The March of Dimes said “it is likely that cocaine will reach the baby through breast milk,” and advises the following regarding cocaine use during pregnancy:. Cocaine use during pregnancy can affect a pregnant woman and her unborn baby in many ways. During the early months of pregnancy, it may increase the risk of miscarriage. Later in pregnancy, it can trigger preterm labor labor that occurs before 37 weeks of pregnancy or cause the baby to grow poorly.

As a result, cocaine-exposed babies are more likely than unexposed babies to be born with low birth weight less than 5. Low-birthweight babies are 20 times more likely to die in their first month of life than normal-weight babies, and face an increased risk of lifelong disabilities such as mental retardation and cerebral palsy. Cocaine-exposed babies also tend to have smaller heads, which generally reflect smaller brains.

Some studies suggest that cocaine-exposed babies are at increased risk of birth defects, including urinary tract defects and, possibly, heart defects. Cocaine also may cause an unborn baby to have a stroke, irreversible brain damage, or a heart attack. Persons with regular or problematic use of cocaine have a significantly higher rate of death, and are specifically at higher risk of traumatic deaths and deaths attributable to infectious disease. The extent of absorption of cocaine into the systemic circulation after nasal insufflation is similar to that after oral ingestion.

The rate of absorption after nasal insufflation is somewhat limited by cocaine-induced vasoconstriction of capillaries in the nasal mucosa. The onset of absorption after oral ingestion is delayed because cocaine is a weak base with a pKa of 8. The delay in absorption after oral ingestion may account for the popular belief that cocaine bioavailability from the stomach is lower than after insufflation. Compared to ingestion, the faster absorption of insufflated cocaine results in quicker attainment of maximum drug effects.

Snorting cocaine produces maximum physiological effects within 40 minutes and maximum psychotropic effects within 20 minutes. Physiological and psychotropic effects from nasally insufflated cocaine are sustained for approximately 40—60 minutes after the peak effects are attained.

Cocaine has a short elimination half life of 0. Depending on liver and kidney function, cocaine metabolites are detectable in urine. Detection of cocaine metabolites in hair is possible in regular users until the sections of hair grown during use are cut or fall out. Dopamine neurotransmitter released during neural signaling is normally recycled via the transporter; i.

Cocaine binds tightly at the dopamine transporter forming a complex that blocks the transporter’s function. The dopamine transporter can no longer perform its reuptake function, and thus dopamine accumulates in the synaptic cleft. The increased concentration of dopamine in the synapse activates post-synaptic dopamine receptors, which makes the drug rewarding and promotes the compulsive use of cocaine.

Cocaine affects certain serotonin 5-HT receptors; in particular, it has been shown to antagonize the 5-HT3 receptor , which is a ligand-gated ion channel. An overabundance of 5-HT3 receptors is reported in cocaine-conditioned rats, though 5-HT3’s role is unclear. Cocaine has been demonstrated to bind as to directly stabilize the DAT transporter on the open outward-facing conformation.

Further, cocaine binds in such a way as to inhibit a hydrogen bond innate to DAT. Cocaine’s binding properties are such that it attaches so this hydrogen bond will not form and is blocked from formation due to the tightly locked orientation of the cocaine molecule.

Research studies have suggested that the affinity for the transporter is not what is involved in the habituation of the substance so much as the conformation and binding properties to where and how on the transporter the molecule binds.

Sigma receptors are affected by cocaine, as cocaine functions as a sigma ligand agonist. Cocaine also blocks sodium channels , thereby interfering with the propagation of action potentials ; [] [71] thus, like lignocaine and novocaine , it acts as a local anesthetic. It also functions on the binding sites to the dopamine and serotonin sodium dependent transport area as targets as separate mechanisms from its reuptake of those transporters; unique to its local anesthetic value which makes it in a class of functionality different from both its own derived phenyltropanes analogues which have that removed.

In addition to this, cocaine has some target binding to the site of the Kappa-opioid receptor. Recent research points to an important role of circadian mechanisms [] and clock genes [] in behavioral actions of cocaine. Cocaine effects, further, are shown to be potentiated for the user when used in conjunction with new surroundings and stimuli, and otherwise novel environs.

Cocaine in its purest form is a white, pearly product. Cocaine appearing in powder form is a salt , typically cocaine hydrochloride.

Street cocaine is often adulterated or “cut” with talc , lactose , sucrose , glucose , mannitol , inositol , caffeine , procaine , phencyclidine , phenytoin , lignocaine , strychnine , levamisole , amphetamine , or heroin. The color of “crack” cocaine depends upon several factors including the origin of the cocaine used, the method of preparation — with ammonia or baking soda — and the presence of impurities.

It will generally range from white to a yellowish cream to a light brown. Its texture will also depend on the adulterants, origin, and processing of the powdered cocaine, and the method of converting the base.

It ranges from a crumbly texture, sometimes extremely oily, to a hard, almost crystalline nature. Cocaine — a tropane alkaloid — is a weakly alkaline compound, and can therefore combine with acidic compounds to form salts. Different salts dissolve to a greater or lesser extent in various solvents — the hydrochloride salt is polar in character and is quite soluble in water.

As the name implies, “freebase” is the base form of cocaine, as opposed to the salt form. It is practically insoluble in water whereas hydrochloride salt is water-soluble.

Smoking freebase cocaine has the additional effect of releasing methylecgonidine into the user’s system due to the pyrolysis of the substance a side effect which insufflating or injecting powder cocaine does not create. Some research suggests that smoking freebase cocaine can be even more cardiotoxic than other routes of administration [] because of methylecgonidine’s effects on lung tissue [] and liver tissue.

Pure cocaine is prepared by neutralizing its compounding salt with an alkaline solution, which will precipitate non-polar basic cocaine. It is further refined through aqueous-solvent liquid—liquid extraction. Crack is usually smoked in a glass pipe, and once inhaled, it passes from the lungs directly to the central nervous system , producing an almost immediate “high” that can be very powerful — this initial crescendo of stimulation is known as a “rush”.

This is followed by an equally intense low, leaving the user craving more drug. Addiction to crack usually occurs with four to six weeks; much more rapidly than with regular cocaine. This effectively destroys some of the cocaine and yields a sharp, acrid, and foul-tasting smoke. The origin of the name “crack” comes from the “crackling” sound and hence the onomatopoeic moniker “crack” that is produced when the cocaine and its impurities i.

Coca herbal infusion also referred to as coca tea is used in coca-leaf producing countries much as any herbal medicinal infusion would elsewhere in the world. The free and legal commercialization of dried coca leaves under the form of filtration bags to be used as “coca tea” has been actively promoted by the governments of Peru and Bolivia for many years as a drink having medicinal powers.

In Peru, the National Coca Company , a state-run corporation, sells cocaine-infused teas and other medicinal products and also exports leaves to the U. Visitors to the city of Cuzco in Peru, and La Paz in Bolivia are greeted with the offering of coca leaf infusions prepared in teapots with whole coca leaves purportedly to help the newly arrived traveler overcome the malaise of high altitude sickness.

One study on coca leaf infusion used with counseling in the treatment of 23 addicted coca-paste smokers in Lima , Peru found that the relapses rate fell from 4.

The duration of abstinence increased from an average of 32 days before treatment to This suggests that coca leaf infusion plus counseling may be effective at preventing relapse during cocaine addiction treatment.

There is little information on the pharmacological and toxicological effects of consuming coca tea. Urine specimens were also analyzed from an individual who consumed one cup of coca tea and it was determined that enough cocaine and cocaine-related metabolites were present to produce a positive drug test.

Since then, Robert Robinson and Edward Leete have made significant contributions to the mechanism of the synthesis. The second addition occurs through a Claisen condensation.

This produces a racemic mixture of the 2-substituted pyrrolidine, with the retention of the thioester from the Claisen condensation. In formation of tropinone from racemic ethyl [2,C 2 ] 4 Nmethylpyrrolidinyl oxobutanoate there is no preference for either stereoisomer. The stereoselectivity of this reaction was further investigated through study of prochiral methylene hydrogen discrimination.

The benzoyl moiety required for the formation of the cocaine diester is synthesized from phenylalanine via cinnamic acid. The biosynthesis begins with L- Glutamine , which is derived to L- ornithine in plants.

The major contribution of L-ornithine and L- arginine as a precursor to the tropane ring was confirmed by Edward Leete. In some animals, the urea cycle derives putrescine from ornithine. L-ornithine is converted to L-arginine, [] which is then decarboxylated via PLP to form agmatine. Hydrolysis of the imine derives N -carbamoylputrescine followed with hydrolysis of the urea to form putrescine. The separate pathways of converting ornithine to putrescine in plants and animals have converged.

A SAM-dependent N -methylation of putrescine gives the N -methylputrescine product, which then undergoes oxidative deamination by the action of diamine oxidase to yield the aminoaldehyde.

The biosynthesis of the tropane alkaloid is still not understood. Hemscheidt proposes that Robinson’s acetonedicarboxylate emerges as a potential intermediate for this reaction. Decarboxylation leads to tropane alkaloid formation. The reduction of tropinone is mediated by NADPH -dependent reductase enzymes, which have been characterized in multiple plant species. Cocaine and its major metabolites may be quantified in blood, plasma, or urine to monitor for use, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning, or assist in the forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal violation or sudden death.

Most commercial cocaine immunoassay screening tests cross-react appreciably with the major cocaine metabolites, but chromatographic techniques can easily distinguish and separately measure each of these substances. When interpreting the results of a test, it is important to consider the cocaine usage history of the individual, since a chronic user can develop tolerance to doses that would incapacitate a cocaine-naive individual, and the chronic user often has high baseline values of the metabolites in his system.

Cautious interpretation of testing results may allow a distinction between passive or active usage, and between smoking versus other routes of administration. Cocaine may be detected by law enforcement using the Scott reagent.

The test can easily generate false positives for common substances and must be confirmed with a laboratory test. The shade of brown shown by the chloroform is proportional to the cocaine content. This test is not cross sensitive to heroin, methamphetamine, benzocaine, procaine and a number of other drugs but other chemicals could cause false positives.

According to a United Nations report, England and Wales are the countries with the highest rate of cocaine usage 2. Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in Europe behind cannabis. Since the mids, overall cocaine usage in Europe has been on the rise, but usage rates and attitudes tend to vary between countries. Approximately 17 million Europeans 5. About 1. The ratio of male to female users is approximately 3.

In London had the highest amount of cocaine in its sewage out of 50 European cities. Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in the United States behind cannabis [] and the U.

In the s and s, the drug became particularly popular in the disco culture as cocaine usage was very common and popular in many discos such as Studio Treatment with contingency management , such as providing vouchers for retail items contingent upon objectively-verified abstinence from recent drug use, has been shown in randomized clinical trials to significantly reduce the likelihood of having a positive test for the presence of cocaine.

TA-CD is an active vaccine [] developed by the Xenova Group which is used to negate the effects of cocaine, making it suitable for use in treatment of addiction. It is created by combining norcocaine with inactivated cholera toxin. Indigenous peoples of South America have chewed the leaves of Erythroxylon coca — a plant that contains vital nutrients as well as numerous alkaloids , including cocaine — for over a thousand years.

The remains of coca leaves have been found with ancient Peruvian mummies, and pottery from the time period depicts humans with bulged cheeks, indicating the presence of something on which they are chewing. When the Spanish arrived in South America , the conquistadors at first banned coca as an “evil agent of devil”. When they wished to make themselves drunk and out of judgment they chewed a mixture of tobacco and coca leaves which make them go as they were out of their wittes.

In , Padre Blas Valera wrote:. Coca protects the body from many ailments, and our doctors use it in powdered form to reduce the swelling of wounds, to strengthen broken bones, to expel cold from the body or prevent it from entering, and to cure rotten wounds or sores that are full of maggots.

And if it does so much for outward ailments, will not its singular virtue have even greater effect in the entrails of those who eat it? Although the stimulant and hunger-suppressant properties of coca had been known for many centuries, the isolation of the cocaine alkaloid was not achieved until Various European scientists had attempted to isolate cocaine, but none had been successful for two reasons: the knowledge of chemistry required was insufficient at the time, and contemporary conditions of sea-shipping from South America could degrade the cocaine in the plant samples available to European chemists.

The cocaine alkaloid was first isolated by the German chemist Friedrich Gaedcke in Gaedcke named the alkaloid “erythroxyline”, and published a description in the journal Archiv der Pharmazie. Carl Scherzer , a scientist aboard the Novara an Austrian frigate sent by Emperor Franz Joseph to circle the globe , to bring him a large amount of coca leaves from South America.

He wrote of the alkaloid’s “colourless transparent prisms” and said that “Its solutions have an alkaline reaction, a bitter taste, promote the flow of saliva and leave a peculiar numbness, followed by a sense of cold when applied to the tongue. Because of the former use of cocaine as a local anesthetic , a suffix “-caine” was later extracted and used to form names of synthetic local anesthetics.

With the discovery of this new alkaloid, Western medicine was quick to exploit the possible uses of this plant. He prepared two separate jars, one containing a cocaine-salt solution, with the other containing merely saltwater. He then submerged a frog’s legs into the two jars, one leg in the treatment and one in the control solution, and proceeded to stimulate the legs in several different ways.

The leg that had been immersed in the cocaine solution reacted very differently from the leg that had been immersed in saltwater. Karl Koller a close associate of Sigmund Freud , who would write about cocaine later experimented with cocaine for ophthalmic usage.

In an infamous experiment in , he experimented upon himself by applying a cocaine solution to his own eye and then pricking it with pins.

His findings were presented to the Heidelberg Ophthalmological Society. Also in , Jellinek demonstrated the effects of cocaine as a respiratory system anesthetic. In , William Halsted demonstrated nerve-block anesthesia, [] and James Leonard Corning demonstrated peridural anesthesia.

In , an Italian doctor , Paolo Mantegazza , returned from Peru , where he had witnessed first-hand the use of coca by the local indigenous peoples.

He proceeded to experiment on himself and upon his return to Milan , he wrote a paper in which he described the effects. In this paper, he declared coca and cocaine at the time they were assumed to be the same as being useful medicinally, in the treatment of “a furred tongue in the morning, flatulence , and whitening of the teeth.

A chemist named Angelo Mariani who read Mantegazza’s paper became immediately intrigued with coca and its economic potential. In , Mariani started marketing a wine called Vin Mariani , which had been treated with coca leaves, to become coca wine.

The ethanol in wine acted as a solvent and extracted the cocaine from the coca leaves, altering the drink’s effect. It contained 6 mg cocaine per ounce of wine, but Vin Mariani which was to be exported contained 7. A “pinch of coca leaves” was included in John Styth Pemberton ‘s original recipe for Coca-Cola , though the company began using decocainized leaves in when the Pure Food and Drug Act was passed.

In cocaine began to be used to treat morphine addiction. Exhilaration and lasting euphoria, which in no way differs from the normal euphoria of the healthy person. You perceive an increase of self-control and possess more vitality and capacity for work. In other words, you are simply normal, and it is soon hard to believe you are under the influence of any drug.

Long intensive physical work is performed without any fatigue. This result is enjoyed without any of the unpleasant after-effects that follow exhilaration brought about by alcoholic beverages. No craving for the further use of cocaine appears after the first, or even after repeated taking of the drug. By the U. By the late Victorian era , cocaine use had appeared as a vice in literature. For example, it was injected by Arthur Conan Doyle ‘s fictional Sherlock Holmes , generally to offset the boredom he felt when he was not working on a case.

In early 20th-century Memphis, Tennessee , cocaine was sold in neighborhood drugstores on Beale Street , costing five or ten cents for a small boxful. Stevedores along the Mississippi River used the drug as a stimulant, and white employers encouraged its use by black laborers. In the song ” Minnie the Moocher “, Cab Calloway heavily references cocaine use. He uses the phrase “kicking the gong around”, slang for cocaine use; describes titular character Minnie as “tall and skinny;” and describes Smokey Joe as “cokey”.

During the mids, amidst World War II, cocaine was considered for inclusion as an ingredient of a future generation of ‘pep pills’ for the German military, code named D-IX. In modern popular culture, references to cocaine are common.

The drug has a glamorous image associated with the wealthy, famous and powerful, and is said to make users “feel rich and beautiful”. In many countries, cocaine is a popular recreational drug. In the United States, the development of “crack” cocaine introduced the substance to a generally poorer inner-city market.

The use of the powder form has stayed relatively constant, experiencing a new height of use during the late s and early s in the U. Cocaine use is prevalent across all socioeconomic strata, including age, demographics, economic, social, political, religious, and livelihood. The estimated U. An American representative in the World Health Assembly banned the publication of the study, because it seemed to make a case for the positive uses of cocaine.

An excerpt of the report strongly conflicted with accepted paradigms, for example, “that occasional cocaine use does not typically lead to severe or even minor physical or social problems. This led to the decision to discontinue publication. A part of the study was recuperated and published in , including profiles of cocaine use in 20 countries, but are unavailable as of [update]. In October it was reported that the use of cocaine in Australia has doubled since monitoring began in A problem with illegal cocaine use, especially in the higher volumes used to combat fatigue rather than increase euphoria by long-term users, is the risk of ill effects or damage caused by the compounds used in adulteration.

The normal adulterants for profit are inactive sugars, usually mannitol, creatine, or glucose, so introducing active adulterants gives the illusion of purity and to ‘stretch’ or make it so a dealer can sell more product than without the adulterants. The production, distribution, and sale of cocaine products is restricted and illegal in most contexts in most countries as regulated by the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs , and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.

In the United States the manufacture, importation, possession, and distribution of cocaine are additionally regulated by the Controlled Substances Act. Some countries, such as Peru and Bolivia, permit the cultivation of coca leaf for traditional consumption by the local indigenous population , but nevertheless, prohibit the production, sale, and consumption of cocaine.

The US federal government instituted a national labeling requirement for cocaine and cocaine-containing products through the Pure Food and Drug Act of While this act is often seen as the start of prohibition, the act itself was not actually a prohibition on cocaine, but instead set up a regulatory and licensing regime.

Before the early s, the primary problem caused by cocaine use was portrayed by newspapers to be addiction, not violence or crime, and the cocaine user was represented as an upper- or middle-class White person.

In , according to the United Nations , tonnes of cocaine were seized globally by law enforcement authorities. Colombia seized t, the United States t, Europe 79 t, Peru 14 t, Bolivia 9 t, and the rest of the world t. Colombia is as of the world’s largest cocaine producer, with production more than tripling since This, combined with crop reductions in Bolivia and Peru, made Colombia the nation with the largest area of coca under cultivation after the mids.

Coca grown for traditional purposes by indigenous communities, a use which is still present and is permitted by Colombian laws, only makes up a small fragment of total coca production, most of which is used for the illegal drug trade.

An interview with a coca farmer published in described a mode of production by acid-base extraction that has changed little since Roughly pounds kg of leaves were harvested per hectare , six times per year. The leaves were dried for half a day, then chopped into small pieces with a string trimmer and sprinkled with a small amount of powdered cement replacing sodium carbonate from former times.

Several hundred pounds of this mixture were soaked in 50 US gallons L of gasoline for a day, then the gasoline was removed and the leaves were pressed for the remaining liquid, after which they could be discarded. Then battery acid weak sulfuric acid was used, one bucket per 55 lb 25 kg of leaves, to create a phase separation in which the cocaine free base in the gasoline was acidified and extracted into a few buckets of “murky-looking smelly liquid”.

Once powdered caustic soda was added to this, the cocaine precipitated and could be removed by filtration through a cloth. The resulting material, when dried, was termed pasta and sold by the farmer.

The pound yearly harvest of leaves from a hectare produced 6 lb 2. Repeated recrystallization from solvents, producing pasta lavada and eventually crystalline cocaine were performed at specialized laboratories after the sale. Attempts to eradicate coca fields through the use of defoliants have devastated part of the farming economy in some coca-growing regions of Colombia, and strains appear to have been developed that are more resistant or immune to their use.

Whether these strains are natural mutations or the product of human tampering is unclear. These strains have also shown to be more potent than those previously grown, increasing profits for the drug cartels responsible for the exporting of cocaine. Although production fell temporarily, coca crops rebounded in numerous smaller fields in Colombia, rather than the larger plantations.

The cultivation of coca has become an attractive economic decision for many growers due to the combination of several factors, including the lack of other employment alternatives, the lower profitability of alternative crops in official crop substitution programs, the eradication-related damages to non-drug farms, the spread of new strains of the coca plant due to persistent worldwide demand. The latest estimate provided by the U. As of the end of , the seizure operations of Colombian cocaine carried out in different countries have totaled Department of State’s estimates.

Synthesizing cocaine could eliminate the high visibility and low reliability of offshore sources and international smuggling, replacing them with clandestine domestic laboratories, as are common for illicit methamphetamine , but is rarely done.

Natural cocaine remains the lowest cost and highest quality supply of cocaine. Formation of inactive stereoisomers cocaine has four chiral centres — 1 R 2 R , 3 S , and 5 S , two of them dependent, hence eight possible stereoisomers plus synthetic by-products limits the yield and purity. Organized criminal gangs operating on a large scale dominate the cocaine trade. The primary cocaine importation points in the United States have been in Arizona , southern California , southern Florida , and Texas.

Typically, land vehicles are driven across the U. Sixty-five percent of cocaine enters the United States through Mexico, and the vast majority of the rest enters through Florida. Cocaine traffickers from Colombia and Mexico have established a labyrinth of smuggling routes throughout the Caribbean, the Bahama Island chain, and South Florida. They often hire traffickers from Mexico or the Dominican Republic to transport the drug using a variety of smuggling techniques to U.

These include airdrops of to kg 1, to 1, lb in the Bahama Islands or off the coast of Puerto Rico , mid-ocean boat-to-boat transfers of to 2, kg 1, to 4, lb , and the commercial shipment of tonnes of cocaine through the port of Miami. Another route of cocaine traffic goes through Chile, which is primarily used for cocaine produced in Bolivia since the nearest seaports lie in northern Chile.

While the price of cocaine is higher in Chile than in Peru and Bolivia, the final destination is usually Europe, especially Spain where drug dealing networks exist among South American immigrants.

Cocaine is also carried in small, concealed, kilogram quantities across the border by couriers known as ” mules ” or “mulas” , who cross a border either legally, for example, through a port or airport, or illegally elsewhere. The drugs may be strapped to the waist or legs or hidden in bags, or hidden in the body. If the mule gets through without being caught, the gangs will reap most of the profits. If caught, gangs will sever all links and the mule will usually stand trial for trafficking alone.

Bulk cargo ships are also used to smuggle cocaine to staging sites in the western Caribbean— Gulf of Mexico area. These vessels are typically —foot 50—80 m coastal freighters that carry an average cocaine load of approximately 2. Commercial fishing vessels are also used for smuggling operations. In areas with a high volume of recreational traffic, smugglers use the same types of vessels, such as go-fast boats , like those used by the local populations. Sophisticated drug subs are the latest tool drug runners are using to bring cocaine north from Colombia, it was reported on 20 March Although the vessels were once viewed as a quirky sideshow in the drug war, they are becoming faster, more seaworthy, and capable of carrying bigger loads of drugs than earlier models, according to those charged with catching them.

Cocaine is readily available in all major countries’ metropolitan areas. According to the Summer Pulse Check , published by the U. In the West, cocaine usage was lower, which was thought to be due to a switch to methamphetamine among some users; methamphetamine is cheaper, three and a half times more powerful, and lasts 12—24 times longer with each dose. These amounts and prices are very popular among young people because they are inexpensive and easily concealed on one’s body.

Quality and price can vary dramatically depending on supply and demand, and on geographic region. Between and , the value of the market remained basically stable”. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Tropane alkaloid and stimulant drug. For other uses, see Cocaine disambiguation. US DailyMed : Cocaine. IUPAC name. Methyl 1 R ,2 R ,3 S ,5 S benzoyloxy methylazabicyclo[3. DB Y. D Y. Interactive image. See also: Crack cocaine. Main article: Cocaine intoxication.

See also: Epigenetics of cocaine addiction. Main article: Prenatal cocaine exposure. Main article: Freebase chemistry. Main article: Crack cocaine. Main article: Biosynthesis of cocaine. Main article: List of countries by prevalence of cocaine use. Main article: Cocaine in the United States. Main article: Legal status of cocaine. See also: Cocaine in the United States. Medicine portal. ISBN Retrieved 30 April Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 10 September Abingdon: CRC Press.

The Neuroscientist. Such derivatives are discouraged by Adobe [6] because, in order to maintain validity and protect the trademark from becoming generic , trademarks must be used as proper nouns. Photoshop’s naming scheme was initially based on version numbers, from version 0. Adobe published 7 major and many minor versions before the October introduction of version 8. In February Adobe donated the source code of the 1. The first Photoshop CS was commercially released in October as the eighth major version of Photoshop.

Photoshop CS increased user control with a reworked file browser augmenting search versatility, sorting and sharing capabilities and the Histogram Palette which monitors changes in the image as they are made to the document. Match Color was also introduced in CS, which reads color data to achieve a uniform expression throughout a series of pictures.

Photoshop CS2, released in May , expanded on its predecessor with a new set of tools and features. It included an upgraded Spot Healing Brush, which is mainly used for handling common photographic problems such as blemishes, red-eye, noise, blurring and lens distortion. One of the most significant inclusions in CS2 was the implementation of Smart Objects, which allows users to scale and transform images and vector illustrations without losing image quality, as well as create linked duplicates of embedded graphics so that a single edit updates across multiple iterations.

Adobe responded to feedback from the professional media industry by implementing non-destructive editing as well as the producing and modifying of Bit High Dynamic Range HDR images, which are optimal for 3D rendering and advanced compositing. FireWire Previews could also be viewed on a monitor via a direct export feature. Image Warping makes it easy to digitally distort an image into a shape by choosing on-demand presets or by dragging control points.

The File Browser was upgraded to Adobe Bridge, which functioned as a hub for productivity, imagery and creativity, providing multi-view file browsing and smooth cross-product integration across Adobe Creative Suite 2 software. Camera Raw version 3. Photoshop CS2 brought a streamlined interface, making it easier to access features for specific instances.

In CS2 users were also given the ability to create their own custom presets, which was meant to save time and increase productivity. CS3 improves on features from previous versions of Photoshop and introduces new tools.

One of the most significant is the streamlined interface which allows increased performance, speed, and efficiency. There is also improved support for Camera RAW files which allow users to process images with higher speed and conversion quality. The Black and White adjustment option improves control over manual grayscale conversions with a dialog box similar to that of Channel Mixer. There is more control over print options and better management with Adobe Bridge.

The Clone Source palette is introduced, adding more options to the clone stamp tool. Other features include the nondestructive Smart Filters, optimizing graphics for mobile devices, [53] Fill Light and Dust Busting tools. CS3 Extended includes everything in CS3 and additional features.

There are tools for 3D graphic file formats, video enhancement and animation, and comprehensive image measurement and analysis tools with DICOM file support. As for video editing, CS3 supports layers and video formatting so users can edit video files per frame.

They were also made available through Adobe’s online store and Adobe Authorized Resellers. CS4 features smoother panning and zooming, allowing faster image editing at a high magnification. The interface is more simplified with its tab-based interface [56] making it cleaner to work with.

Photoshop CS4 features a new 3D engine allowing the conversion of gradient maps to 3D objects, adding depth to layers and text, and getting print-quality output with the new ray-tracing rendering engine. It supports common 3D formats; the new Adjustment and Mask panels; content-aware scaling seam carving ; [57] fluid canvas rotation and File display options.

Adobe released Photoshop CS4 Extended, which has the features of Adobe Photoshop CS4, plus capabilities for scientific imaging, 3D, motion graphics, accurate image analysis and high-end film and video users. The faster 3D engine allows users to paint directly on 3D models, wrap 2D images around 3D shapes and animate 3D objects. Photoshop CS5 was launched on April 12, In May , Adobe Creative Suite 5.

Its version of Photoshop, The community also had a hand in the additions made to CS5 as 30 new features and improvements were included by request. These include automatic image straightening, the Rule-of-Thirds cropping tool, color pickup, and saving a bit image as a JPEG.

Another feature includes the Adobe Mini Bridge, which allows for efficient file browsing and management. A new materials library was added, providing more options such as Chrome, Glass, and Cork. The new Shadow Catcher tool can be used to further enhance 3D objects. For motion graphics, the tools can be applied to over more than one frame in a video sequence.

Photoshop CS6, released in May , added new creative design tools and provided a redesigned interface [65] with a focus on enhanced performance. Adobe Photoshop CS6 brought a suite of tools for video editing. Color and exposure adjustments, as well as layers, are among a few things that are featured in this new editor. Upon completion of editing, the user is presented with a handful of options of exporting into a few popular formats. CS6 brings the “straighten” tool to Photoshop, where a user simply draws a line anywhere on an image, and the canvas will reorient itself so that the line drawn becomes horizontal, and adjusts the media accordingly.

This was created with the intention that users will draw a line parallel to a plane in the image, and reorient the image to that plane to more easily achieve certain perspectives.

CS6 allows background saving, which means that while another document is compiling and archiving itself, it is possible to simultaneously edit an image. CS6 also features a customizable auto-save feature, preventing any work from being lost. With version Adobe also announced that CS6 will be the last suite sold with perpetual licenses in favor of the new Creative Cloud subscriptions, though they will continue to provide OS compatibility support as well as bug fixes and security updates as necessary.

Starting January 9, , CS6 is no longer available for purchase, making a Creative Cloud license the only purchase option going forward. Photoshop CC As the next major version after CS6, it is only available as part of a Creative Cloud subscription. Major features in this version include new Smart Sharpen, Intelligent Upsampling, and Camera Shake Reduction for reducing blur caused by camera shake.

Since the initial launch, Adobe has released two additional feature-bearing updates. The first, version The major features in this version were Adobe Generator, a Node. Photoshop Version CC features improvements to content-aware tools, two new blur tools spin blur and path blur and a new focus mask feature that enables the user to select parts of an image based on whether they are in focus or not. Other minor improvements have been made, including speed increases for certain tasks.

Photoshop CC was released on June 15, Adobe added various creative features including Adobe Stock, which is a library of custom stock images. It also includes and have the ability to have more than one layer style. The updated UI as of November 30, , delivers a cleaner and more consistent look throughout Photoshop, and the user can quickly perform common tasks using a new set of gestures on touch-enabled devices like Microsoft Surface Pro. Photoshop CC was released on November 2, It introduced a new template selector when creating new documents, the ability to search for tools, panels and help articles for Photoshop, support for SVG OpenType fonts and other small improvements.

Photoshop CC version 19 was released on October 18, It featured an overhaul to the brush organization system, allowing for more properties such as color and opacity to be saved per-brush and for brushes to be categorized in folders and sub-folders. It also added brush stroke smoothing, and over brushes created by Kyle T. Webster following Adobe’s acquisition of his website, KyleBrush. Other additions were Lightroom Photo access, Variable font support, select subject, copy-paste layers, enhanced tooltips, panorama and HEIF support, PNG compression, increased maximum zoom level, symmetry mode, algorithm improvements to Face-aware and selection tools, color and luminance range masking, improved image resizing, and performance improvements to file opening, filters, and brush strokes.

Photoshop CC was released on October 15, Beginning with Photoshop CC version This version Introduced a new tool called Frame Tool to create placeholder frames for images. It also added multiple undo mode, auto-commitment, and prevented accidental panel moves with lock work-space. Live blend mode previews are added, allowing for faster scrolling over different blend mode options in the layers panel.

Other additions were Color Wheel, Transform proportionally without Shift key, Distribute spacing like in Illustrator, ability to see longer layer names, match font with Japanese fonts, flip document view, scale UI to font, reference point hidden by default, new compositing engine, which provides a more modern compositing architecture is added which is easier to optimize on all platforms.

Photoshop was released on November 4, It added several improvements to the new content-aware fill and to the new document tab. Also added were animated GIF support, improved lens blur performance and one-click zoom to a layer’s contents.

It introduced new swatches, gradients, patterns, shapes and stylistic sets for OpenType fonts. Presets are now more intuitive to use and easier to organize. With the February update version This version improved GPU based lens blur quality and provided performance improvements, such as accelerating workflows with smoother panning, zooming and navigation of documents. Version 21 was the first version where the iPad version was released. It introduced faster portrait selection, Adobe Camera Raw improvements, auto-activated Adobe Fonts, rotatable patterns, and improved Match Font.

This is the first macOS release to run natively on Apple silicon. Content Credentials Beta was introduced. When enabled, the editing information is captured in a tamper-evident form and resides with the file through successive copy generations. It aligns with the C2PA standard on digital provenance across the internet. The Adobe Photoshop family is a group of applications and services made by Adobe Inc. Several features of the Adobe Photoshop family are pixel manipulating, image organizing, photo retouching, and more.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Raster graphics editing software. For the colloquial verb meaning photograph manipulation, see Photoshop verb. For other uses, see Photoshop disambiguation. For the vector graphics language, see PostScript. Adobe Photoshop Thomas Knoll John Knoll. List of languages. Main article: Photoshop plugin. This section may need to be rewritten to comply with Wikipedia’s quality standards.

You can help. The talk page may contain suggestions. July You can help by adding to it. September Retrieved July 20, Adobe Inc. Retrieved November 13, Retrieved January 31, Retrieved February 29, The Verge. Retrieved March 1, Retrieved November 7, Archived from the original on June 26, Retrieved June 15, Story Photography.

May 23, Retrieved May 23, February 28, Archived from the original on July 1, Retrieved October 15, Graphics Software. Retrieved August 13, Mac Publishing. Dennis Publishing Ltd. Raja January 13, The Hindu. Retrieved August 10, Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved January 23, Securities and Exchange Commission. February 22, Archived from the original on February 24, What Opens a PSD?

File Format List from WhatIs. Retrieved May 12, Retrieved December 17, Nik Software Inc. Topaz Labs, LLC. August 31, Auto FX Software. AV Bros. Archived from the original on October 15, Flaming Pear Software. Andromeda Software Inc.

Archived from the original on December 3, Retrieved December 4, Adobe Systems Incorporated. Archived from the original PDF on November 13, Retrieved March 27, Postel PMID Retrieved February 14, Photoshop Elements The Missing Manual. ISBN Adobe Photoshop CS5 one-on-one. Indianapolis, Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc.

Adobe Photoshop Elements 5. Burlington, MA: Focal Press. Retrieved March 28, Ars Technica. Retrieved September 15, Archived from the original on March 15, Archived from the original on May 7, Press Release. Archived from the original on 13 November Retrieved 29 March News Releases. Retrieved 28 March Web Designer Depot. Adobe official site. Archived from the original PDF on 19 June Retrieved 17 June Adobe Official site. Archived from the original PDF on 28 September Archived from the original on 13 April

 
 

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Дэвид кивнул. – В следующем семестре я возвращаюсь в аудиторию. Сьюзан с облегчением вздохнула: – Туда, где твое подлинное призвание. Дэвид улыбнулся: – Да.

In , according to the United Nations , tonnes of cocaine were seized globally by law enforcement authorities. Colombia seized t, the United States t, Europe 79 t, Peru 14 t, Bolivia 9 t, and the rest of the world t. Colombia is as of the world’s largest cocaine producer, with production more than tripling since This, combined with crop reductions in Bolivia and Peru, made Colombia the nation with the largest area of coca under cultivation after the mids.

Coca grown for traditional purposes by indigenous communities, a use which is still present and is permitted by Colombian laws, only makes up a small fragment of total coca production, most of which is used for the illegal drug trade. An interview with a coca farmer published in described a mode of production by acid-base extraction that has changed little since Roughly pounds kg of leaves were harvested per hectare , six times per year. The leaves were dried for half a day, then chopped into small pieces with a string trimmer and sprinkled with a small amount of powdered cement replacing sodium carbonate from former times.

Several hundred pounds of this mixture were soaked in 50 US gallons L of gasoline for a day, then the gasoline was removed and the leaves were pressed for the remaining liquid, after which they could be discarded.

Then battery acid weak sulfuric acid was used, one bucket per 55 lb 25 kg of leaves, to create a phase separation in which the cocaine free base in the gasoline was acidified and extracted into a few buckets of “murky-looking smelly liquid”. Once powdered caustic soda was added to this, the cocaine precipitated and could be removed by filtration through a cloth.

The resulting material, when dried, was termed pasta and sold by the farmer. The pound yearly harvest of leaves from a hectare produced 6 lb 2. Repeated recrystallization from solvents, producing pasta lavada and eventually crystalline cocaine were performed at specialized laboratories after the sale.

Attempts to eradicate coca fields through the use of defoliants have devastated part of the farming economy in some coca-growing regions of Colombia, and strains appear to have been developed that are more resistant or immune to their use.

Whether these strains are natural mutations or the product of human tampering is unclear. These strains have also shown to be more potent than those previously grown, increasing profits for the drug cartels responsible for the exporting of cocaine. Although production fell temporarily, coca crops rebounded in numerous smaller fields in Colombia, rather than the larger plantations.

The cultivation of coca has become an attractive economic decision for many growers due to the combination of several factors, including the lack of other employment alternatives, the lower profitability of alternative crops in official crop substitution programs, the eradication-related damages to non-drug farms, the spread of new strains of the coca plant due to persistent worldwide demand.

The latest estimate provided by the U. As of the end of , the seizure operations of Colombian cocaine carried out in different countries have totaled Department of State’s estimates. Synthesizing cocaine could eliminate the high visibility and low reliability of offshore sources and international smuggling, replacing them with clandestine domestic laboratories, as are common for illicit methamphetamine , but is rarely done.

Natural cocaine remains the lowest cost and highest quality supply of cocaine. Formation of inactive stereoisomers cocaine has four chiral centres — 1 R 2 R , 3 S , and 5 S , two of them dependent, hence eight possible stereoisomers plus synthetic by-products limits the yield and purity. Organized criminal gangs operating on a large scale dominate the cocaine trade. The primary cocaine importation points in the United States have been in Arizona , southern California , southern Florida , and Texas.

Typically, land vehicles are driven across the U. Sixty-five percent of cocaine enters the United States through Mexico, and the vast majority of the rest enters through Florida.

Cocaine traffickers from Colombia and Mexico have established a labyrinth of smuggling routes throughout the Caribbean, the Bahama Island chain, and South Florida. They often hire traffickers from Mexico or the Dominican Republic to transport the drug using a variety of smuggling techniques to U.

These include airdrops of to kg 1, to 1, lb in the Bahama Islands or off the coast of Puerto Rico , mid-ocean boat-to-boat transfers of to 2, kg 1, to 4, lb , and the commercial shipment of tonnes of cocaine through the port of Miami. Another route of cocaine traffic goes through Chile, which is primarily used for cocaine produced in Bolivia since the nearest seaports lie in northern Chile.

While the price of cocaine is higher in Chile than in Peru and Bolivia, the final destination is usually Europe, especially Spain where drug dealing networks exist among South American immigrants. Cocaine is also carried in small, concealed, kilogram quantities across the border by couriers known as ” mules ” or “mulas” , who cross a border either legally, for example, through a port or airport, or illegally elsewhere.

The drugs may be strapped to the waist or legs or hidden in bags, or hidden in the body. If the mule gets through without being caught, the gangs will reap most of the profits. If caught, gangs will sever all links and the mule will usually stand trial for trafficking alone.

Bulk cargo ships are also used to smuggle cocaine to staging sites in the western Caribbean— Gulf of Mexico area. These vessels are typically —foot 50—80 m coastal freighters that carry an average cocaine load of approximately 2. Commercial fishing vessels are also used for smuggling operations.

In areas with a high volume of recreational traffic, smugglers use the same types of vessels, such as go-fast boats , like those used by the local populations. Sophisticated drug subs are the latest tool drug runners are using to bring cocaine north from Colombia, it was reported on 20 March Although the vessels were once viewed as a quirky sideshow in the drug war, they are becoming faster, more seaworthy, and capable of carrying bigger loads of drugs than earlier models, according to those charged with catching them.

Cocaine is readily available in all major countries’ metropolitan areas. According to the Summer Pulse Check , published by the U.

In the West, cocaine usage was lower, which was thought to be due to a switch to methamphetamine among some users; methamphetamine is cheaper, three and a half times more powerful, and lasts 12—24 times longer with each dose. These amounts and prices are very popular among young people because they are inexpensive and easily concealed on one’s body.

Quality and price can vary dramatically depending on supply and demand, and on geographic region. Between and , the value of the market remained basically stable”. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Tropane alkaloid and stimulant drug. For other uses, see Cocaine disambiguation. US DailyMed : Cocaine. IUPAC name. Methyl 1 R ,2 R ,3 S ,5 S benzoyloxy methylazabicyclo[3.

DB Y. D Y. Interactive image. See also: Crack cocaine. Main article: Cocaine intoxication. See also: Epigenetics of cocaine addiction. Main article: Prenatal cocaine exposure. Main article: Freebase chemistry. Main article: Crack cocaine. Main article: Biosynthesis of cocaine. Main article: List of countries by prevalence of cocaine use. Main article: Cocaine in the United States. Main article: Legal status of cocaine. See also: Cocaine in the United States.

Medicine portal. ISBN Retrieved 30 April Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 10 September Abingdon: CRC Press. The Neuroscientist. PMID S2CID Archived from the original on 9 August Retrieved 7 August European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Drug Metabolism and Disposition. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Critical Care Clinics. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Current Medicinal Chemistry. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Office-Based Laryngeal Surgery. USA: Springer. Analysis of the role of the proton-organic cation antiporter”. Biochemical Pharmacology. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

October The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. PMC Frontiers in Neurology. June European Psychiatry. Annual Review of Psychology. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. Journal of Anthropological Research.

Economic Botany. British Journal of Hospital Medicine. Drug Enforcement Agency. Retrieved 17 June The Laryngoscope Review. Drug Safety. Clinical Otolaryngology and Allied Sciences.

This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Neuroscience of psychoactive substance use and dependence. Archived from the original on 30 April International medical guide for ships. Drug and Alcohol Dependence Systematic Review. Critical Care Clinics Review. Personality Traits and Drug Consumption.

A Story Told by Data. Springer, Cham. Archived from the original PDF on 15 October National Institute on Drug Abuse. April Archived from the original on 11 July Retrieved 11 July Vertava Health. Retrieved 25 February Life Sciences. Retrieved 14 June Archived from the original on 9 July Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. US Justice Dep. Archived from the original on 30 November Lincoln Journal Star.

Archived from the original on 26 July Retrieved 21 August Archived from the original on 2 February Retrieved 23 January CiteSeerX Archived from the original on 28 November The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. Journal of Neurochemistry. Archived from the original on 4 April Retrieved 25 September Aggression and Violent Behavior.

ISSN British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Drug and Alcohol Review. Behavioural Brain Research. Biological Psychiatry. Psychiatry Research. International Review of Neurobiology. Karch’s pathology of drug abuse 4 ed. Curr Opin Psychiatry. Washington, D. Current Opinion in Hematology. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Review.

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Bibcode : Natur. The Journal of Neuroscience. Bibcode : PNAS Addiction Biology. Molecular Cell. Annual Review of Medicine. The New York Times. March of Dimes. Retrieved 26 May Journal of Analytical Toxicology.

Archived from the original on 18 July Chemistry Views. Retrieved 22 July Table V. Journal of Cellular Physiology. European Journal of Pharmacology. Nature Neuroscience. Archived from the original on 12 January Retrieved 9 March Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. Archived from the original on 20 February Bibcode : PNAS.. February Molecular Neurobiology. November American Addiction Centers. Retrieved 10 March Retrieved 4 May British Journal of Pharmacology.

Chemical Research in Toxicology. Principles of addiction medicine. Retrieved 5 January Hip Hop America. Viking Penguin. Business Insider. Retrieved 15 June Substance Abuse. Forensic Science International. A century-old problem unresolved”. Natural Product Reports. Medicinal Natural Products. Chicester: Wiley-Blackwell. Organic Letters. Planta Medica. Topics in Current Chemistry. Pacific Standard. Retrieved 21 April Archived from the original on 1 January Analytical Chemistry.

World Drug Report United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved 7 July Archived from the original on 9 March Retrieved 5 February Archived PDF from the original on 25 April Retrieved 31 December BBC news. Archived from the original on 4 June Retrieved 4 June Archived from the original on 6 October Retrieved 10 July Archived from the original on 29 December Retrieved 15 January Alkaloids: Nature’s Curse or Blessing?

Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. Survey of Ophthalmology. Clinical Toxicology. London: The Independent UK. Archived from the original on 28 February Joyfull Newes out of the Newe Founde Worlde. New York: Alfred Knopf. Archived from the original on 30 December Archiv der Pharmazie.

Online Etymology Dictionary. Chemical Reviews. Archived PDF from the original on 4 March Liebigs Ann. A synthesis of tropinone”. New York Medical Journal. Archived from the original on 8 February Byck R ed. Cocaine Papers. Open Culture. Archived from the original on 7 March Archived from the original on 19 January The Wilson Quarterly. JSTOR Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Cocaine: An Unauthorized Biography. Archived from the original on 27 February Archived from the original on 11 August Retrieved 18 May Archived from the original on 14 May Treatment of Black Alcoholics.

Psychology Press. Temple University Press. Pharmacology for Anesthetists. Archived from the original on 17 June Retrieved 13 November Archived from the original on 11 November Transnational Institute. Retrieved 8 June Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 18 October Retrieved 19 October The Guardian.

Retrieved 23 December Archived PDF from the original on 3 May Retrieved 12 January July Archived from the original PDF on 22 December American Medicine. American-Medicine Publishing Company: Archived from the original on 9 May Retrieved 29 April Race and Crime: Geographies of Injustice.

Oakland, California: University of California Press. Retrieved 21 November New York: United Nations. Archived PDF from the original on 14 June NBC News. Archived from the original on 4 March Archived from the original on 15 January National Drug Intelligence Center.

Flare Network Flarenetwork. Archived from the original on 6 January Department of State. Retrieved 26 March New Health Advisor. Illegal drugs: America’s anguish ed. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Thomson Gale. Drug Enforcement Administration. Archived from the original PDF on 10 April Retrieved 10 April Mexican TCOs pose the greatest criminal drug threat to the United States; no other group is currently positioned to challenge them.

These Mexican poly-drug organizations traffic heroin, methamphetamine, cocaine, and marijuana throughout the United States, using established transportation routes and distribution networks. While all of these Mexican TCOs transport wholesale quantities of illicit drugs into the United States, the Sinaloa Cartel appears to be the most active supplier.

The Sinaloa Cartel leverages its expansive resources and dominance in Mexico to facilitate the smuggling and transportation of drugs throughout the United States. Archived from the original on 21 March Retrieved 20 March Archived from the original on 27 March City of Denison Iowa. Archived from the original on 6 November The Economist. Annual report: the state of the drugs problem in Europe PDF.

United States Department of Defense. Archived from the original PDF on 11 September There are tools for 3D graphic file formats, video enhancement and animation, and comprehensive image measurement and analysis tools with DICOM file support. As for video editing, CS3 supports layers and video formatting so users can edit video files per frame.

They were also made available through Adobe’s online store and Adobe Authorized Resellers. CS4 features smoother panning and zooming, allowing faster image editing at a high magnification. The interface is more simplified with its tab-based interface [56] making it cleaner to work with.

Photoshop CS4 features a new 3D engine allowing the conversion of gradient maps to 3D objects, adding depth to layers and text, and getting print-quality output with the new ray-tracing rendering engine.

It supports common 3D formats; the new Adjustment and Mask panels; content-aware scaling seam carving ; [57] fluid canvas rotation and File display options. Adobe released Photoshop CS4 Extended, which has the features of Adobe Photoshop CS4, plus capabilities for scientific imaging, 3D, motion graphics, accurate image analysis and high-end film and video users.

The faster 3D engine allows users to paint directly on 3D models, wrap 2D images around 3D shapes and animate 3D objects.

Photoshop CS5 was launched on April 12, In May , Adobe Creative Suite 5. Its version of Photoshop, The community also had a hand in the additions made to CS5 as 30 new features and improvements were included by request. These include automatic image straightening, the Rule-of-Thirds cropping tool, color pickup, and saving a bit image as a JPEG. Another feature includes the Adobe Mini Bridge, which allows for efficient file browsing and management.

A new materials library was added, providing more options such as Chrome, Glass, and Cork. The new Shadow Catcher tool can be used to further enhance 3D objects. For motion graphics, the tools can be applied to over more than one frame in a video sequence.

Photoshop CS6, released in May , added new creative design tools and provided a redesigned interface [65] with a focus on enhanced performance. Adobe Photoshop CS6 brought a suite of tools for video editing. Color and exposure adjustments, as well as layers, are among a few things that are featured in this new editor. Upon completion of editing, the user is presented with a handful of options of exporting into a few popular formats.

CS6 brings the “straighten” tool to Photoshop, where a user simply draws a line anywhere on an image, and the canvas will reorient itself so that the line drawn becomes horizontal, and adjusts the media accordingly.

This was created with the intention that users will draw a line parallel to a plane in the image, and reorient the image to that plane to more easily achieve certain perspectives. CS6 allows background saving, which means that while another document is compiling and archiving itself, it is possible to simultaneously edit an image. CS6 also features a customizable auto-save feature, preventing any work from being lost. With version Adobe also announced that CS6 will be the last suite sold with perpetual licenses in favor of the new Creative Cloud subscriptions, though they will continue to provide OS compatibility support as well as bug fixes and security updates as necessary.

Starting January 9, , CS6 is no longer available for purchase, making a Creative Cloud license the only purchase option going forward. Photoshop CC As the next major version after CS6, it is only available as part of a Creative Cloud subscription. Major features in this version include new Smart Sharpen, Intelligent Upsampling, and Camera Shake Reduction for reducing blur caused by camera shake.

Since the initial launch, Adobe has released two additional feature-bearing updates. The first, version The major features in this version were Adobe Generator, a Node.

Photoshop Version CC features improvements to content-aware tools, two new blur tools spin blur and path blur and a new focus mask feature that enables the user to select parts of an image based on whether they are in focus or not. Other minor improvements have been made, including speed increases for certain tasks. Photoshop CC was released on June 15, Adobe added various creative features including Adobe Stock, which is a library of custom stock images. It also includes and have the ability to have more than one layer style.

The updated UI as of November 30, , delivers a cleaner and more consistent look throughout Photoshop, and the user can quickly perform common tasks using a new set of gestures on touch-enabled devices like Microsoft Surface Pro.

Photoshop CC was released on November 2, It introduced a new template selector when creating new documents, the ability to search for tools, panels and help articles for Photoshop, support for SVG OpenType fonts and other small improvements. Photoshop CC version 19 was released on October 18, It featured an overhaul to the brush organization system, allowing for more properties such as color and opacity to be saved per-brush and for brushes to be categorized in folders and sub-folders.

It also added brush stroke smoothing, and over brushes created by Kyle T. Webster following Adobe’s acquisition of his website, KyleBrush. Other additions were Lightroom Photo access, Variable font support, select subject, copy-paste layers, enhanced tooltips, panorama and HEIF support, PNG compression, increased maximum zoom level, symmetry mode, algorithm improvements to Face-aware and selection tools, color and luminance range masking, improved image resizing, and performance improvements to file opening, filters, and brush strokes.

Photoshop CC was released on October 15, Beginning with Photoshop CC version This version Introduced a new tool called Frame Tool to create placeholder frames for images.

It also added multiple undo mode, auto-commitment, and prevented accidental panel moves with lock work-space. Live blend mode previews are added, allowing for faster scrolling over different blend mode options in the layers panel. Other additions were Color Wheel, Transform proportionally without Shift key, Distribute spacing like in Illustrator, ability to see longer layer names, match font with Japanese fonts, flip document view, scale UI to font, reference point hidden by default, new compositing engine, which provides a more modern compositing architecture is added which is easier to optimize on all platforms.

Photoshop was released on November 4, It added several improvements to the new content-aware fill and to the new document tab. Also added were animated GIF support, improved lens blur performance and one-click zoom to a layer’s contents. It introduced new swatches, gradients, patterns, shapes and stylistic sets for OpenType fonts. Presets are now more intuitive to use and easier to organize. With the February update version This version improved GPU based lens blur quality and provided performance improvements, such as accelerating workflows with smoother panning, zooming and navigation of documents.

Version 21 was the first version where the iPad version was released. It introduced faster portrait selection, Adobe Camera Raw improvements, auto-activated Adobe Fonts, rotatable patterns, and improved Match Font. This is the first macOS release to run natively on Apple silicon.

Content Credentials Beta was introduced. When enabled, the editing information is captured in a tamper-evident form and resides with the file through successive copy generations.

It aligns with the C2PA standard on digital provenance across the internet. The Adobe Photoshop family is a group of applications and services made by Adobe Inc. Several features of the Adobe Photoshop family are pixel manipulating, image organizing, photo retouching, and more. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Raster graphics editing software. For the colloquial verb meaning photograph manipulation, see Photoshop verb.

For other uses, see Photoshop disambiguation. For the vector graphics language, see PostScript. Adobe Photoshop Thomas Knoll John Knoll. List of languages. Main article: Photoshop plugin. This section may need to be rewritten to comply with Wikipedia’s quality standards.

You can help. The talk page may contain suggestions. July You can help by adding to it. September Retrieved July 20, Adobe Inc.

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May 23, Retrieved May 23, February 28, Archived from the original on July 1, Retrieved October 15, Graphics Software. Retrieved August 13, Mac Publishing. Dennis Publishing Ltd. Raja January 13, The Hindu. Retrieved August 10, Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved January 23, Securities and Exchange Commission.

February 22, Archived from the original on February 24, What Opens a PSD? File Format List from WhatIs. Retrieved May 12, Retrieved December 17, Nik Software Inc. Topaz Labs, LLC. August 31, Auto FX Software.

AV Bros. Archived from the original on October 15, Flaming Pear Software. Andromeda Software Inc. Archived from the original on December 3, Retrieved December 4, Adobe Systems Incorporated. Archived from the original PDF on November 13, Retrieved March 27, Postel PMID Retrieved February 14, Photoshop Elements The Missing Manual. ISBN Adobe Photoshop CS5 one-on-one.

Indianapolis, Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc. Adobe Photoshop Elements 5. Burlington, MA: Focal Press. Retrieved March 28, Ars Technica. Retrieved September 15, Archived from the original on March 15, Archived from the original on May 7, Press Release. Archived from the original on 13 November Retrieved 29 March News Releases. Retrieved 28 March Web Designer Depot. Adobe official site. Archived from the original PDF on 19 June Retrieved 17 June Adobe Official site.

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Это означает конец нашей разведки. Но мысли Сьюзан были далеко от политических последствий создания «Цифровой крепости». Она пыталась осознать истинный смысл случившегося. Всю свою жизнь она посвятила взламыванию шифров, отвергая саму возможность разработки абсолютно стойкого шифра.

Нет, существует. Я видел его в Интернете. Мои люди несколько дней пытаются его взломать.

 

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У меня неотложное дело! – рявкнул Беккер. Он схватил парня за рукав.  – У нее кольцо, которое принадлежит. Я готов заплатить.

Очень .

Сьюзан стояла, завернувшись в мохнатое полотенце, не замечая, что вода капает на аккуратно сложенные веши, приготовленные накануне: шорты, свитер – на случай прохладных вечеров в горах, – новую ночную рубашку. Расстроенная, она подошла к шкафу, чтобы достать чистую блузку и юбку. Чрезвычайная ситуация. В шифровалке.

Cocaine (from French: cocaïne, from Spanish: coca, ultimately from Quechua: kúka) is a strong central nervous system (CNS) stimulant obtained from the leaves of two Coca species native to South America, Erythroxylum coca and Erythroxylum novogranatense. After extraction from coca leaves and further processing into cocaine hydrochloride (powdered cocaine), the drug may . Official City of Calgary local government Twitter account. Keep up with City news, services, programs, events and more. Not monitored 24/7. アクセサリー通販lupis(ルピス)では人気のバンスクリップを販売しています。新商品が毎日入荷!お得な割引クーポンも. Schuylkill League c/o Stephen Toth, League President Tamaqua Area School District West Broad Street Tamaqua, PA Telephone: Fax: 1, Best Affinity Designer Free Brush Downloads from the Brusheezy community. Affinity Designer Free Brushes licensed under creative commons, open source, and more! crack grunge rock mineral ore Filters. Close Sort by: Best Match. Newest. File type: Brushes. Actions. PSDs. Patterns Creative Text Effect Happy New Year Design.

Tropane alkaloid and stimulant drug. For other uses, see Cocaine disambiguation. US DailyMed : Cocaine. IUPAC name. Methyl 1 R ,2 R ,3 S ,5 S benzoyloxy methylazabicyclo[3. DB Y. D Y. Interactive image. See also: Crack cocaine. Main article: Cocaine intoxication.

See also: Epigenetics of cocaine addiction. Main article: Prenatal cocaine exposure. Main article: Freebase chemistry. Main article: Crack cocaine. Main article: Biosynthesis of cocaine. Main article: List of countries by prevalence of cocaine use. Main article: Cocaine in the United States. Main article: Legal status of cocaine. See also: Cocaine in the United States. Medicine portal. ISBN Retrieved 30 April Cambridge University Press.

Archived from the original on 10 September Abingdon: CRC Press. The Neuroscientist. PMID S2CID Archived from the original on 9 August Retrieved 7 August European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Drug Metabolism and Disposition. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Critical Care Clinics. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Current Medicinal Chemistry. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Office-Based Laryngeal Surgery. USA: Springer. Analysis of the role of the proton-organic cation antiporter”. Biochemical Pharmacology. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. October The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology.

PMC Frontiers in Neurology. June European Psychiatry. Annual Review of Psychology. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. Journal of Anthropological Research. Economic Botany. British Journal of Hospital Medicine. Drug Enforcement Agency. Retrieved 17 June The Laryngoscope Review. Drug Safety. Clinical Otolaryngology and Allied Sciences. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

Neuroscience of psychoactive substance use and dependence. Archived from the original on 30 April International medical guide for ships. Drug and Alcohol Dependence Systematic Review.

Critical Care Clinics Review. Personality Traits and Drug Consumption. A Story Told by Data. Springer, Cham. Archived from the original PDF on 15 October National Institute on Drug Abuse. April Archived from the original on 11 July Retrieved 11 July Vertava Health. Retrieved 25 February Life Sciences. Retrieved 14 June Archived from the original on 9 July Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

Journal of Neuroscience Methods. US Justice Dep. Archived from the original on 30 November Lincoln Journal Star. Archived from the original on 26 July Retrieved 21 August Archived from the original on 2 February Retrieved 23 January CiteSeerX Archived from the original on 28 November The American Journal of the Medical Sciences.

Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. Journal of Neurochemistry. Archived from the original on 4 April Retrieved 25 September Aggression and Violent Behavior. ISSN British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Drug and Alcohol Review. Behavioural Brain Research. Biological Psychiatry. Psychiatry Research. International Review of Neurobiology. Karch’s pathology of drug abuse 4 ed. Curr Opin Psychiatry. Washington, D. Current Opinion in Hematology.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology Review. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Bibcode : Natur. The Journal of Neuroscience. Bibcode : PNAS Addiction Biology. Molecular Cell. Annual Review of Medicine. The New York Times. March of Dimes. Retrieved 26 May Journal of Analytical Toxicology.

Archived from the original on 18 July Chemistry Views. Retrieved 22 July Table V. Journal of Cellular Physiology. European Journal of Pharmacology. Nature Neuroscience. Archived from the original on 12 January Retrieved 9 March Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. Archived from the original on 20 February Bibcode : PNAS.. February Molecular Neurobiology. November American Addiction Centers. Retrieved 10 March Retrieved 4 May British Journal of Pharmacology.

Chemical Research in Toxicology. Principles of addiction medicine. Retrieved 5 January Hip Hop America. Viking Penguin. Business Insider. Retrieved 15 June Substance Abuse. Forensic Science International. A century-old problem unresolved”.

Natural Product Reports. Medicinal Natural Products. Chicester: Wiley-Blackwell. Organic Letters. Planta Medica. Topics in Current Chemistry. Pacific Standard. Retrieved 21 April Archived from the original on 1 January Analytical Chemistry. World Drug Report United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

Retrieved 7 July Archived from the original on 9 March Retrieved 5 February Archived PDF from the original on 25 April Retrieved 31 December BBC news. Archived from the original on 4 June Retrieved 4 June Archived from the original on 6 October Retrieved 10 July Archived from the original on 29 December Retrieved 15 January Alkaloids: Nature’s Curse or Blessing?

Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. Survey of Ophthalmology. Clinical Toxicology. London: The Independent UK. Archived from the original on 28 February Joyfull Newes out of the Newe Founde Worlde. New York: Alfred Knopf. Archived from the original on 30 December Archiv der Pharmazie. Online Etymology Dictionary. Chemical Reviews. Archived PDF from the original on 4 March Liebigs Ann. A synthesis of tropinone”. New York Medical Journal. Archived from the original on 8 February Byck R ed.

Cocaine Papers. Open Culture. Archived from the original on 7 March Archived from the original on 19 January The Wilson Quarterly. JSTOR Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Cocaine: An Unauthorized Biography. Archived from the original on 27 February Archived from the original on 11 August Retrieved 18 May Archived from the original on 14 May Treatment of Black Alcoholics. Psychology Press. Temple University Press. Pharmacology for Anesthetists. Archived from the original on 17 June Retrieved 13 November Archived from the original on 11 November Transnational Institute.

Retrieved 8 June Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 18 October Retrieved 19 October The Guardian. Retrieved 23 December Archived PDF from the original on 3 May Retrieved 12 January July Archived from the original PDF on 22 December American Medicine.

American-Medicine Publishing Company: Archived from the original on 9 May Retrieved 29 April Race and Crime: Geographies of Injustice.

Oakland, California: University of California Press. Retrieved 21 November New York: United Nations. Archived PDF from the original on 14 June NBC News. Archived from the original on 4 March Archived from the original on 15 January National Drug Intelligence Center. Flare Network Flarenetwork. Archived from the original on 6 January Department of State. Retrieved 26 March New Health Advisor.

Illegal drugs: America’s anguish ed. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Thomson Gale. Drug Enforcement Administration. Archived from the original PDF on 10 April Retrieved 10 April Mexican TCOs pose the greatest criminal drug threat to the United States; no other group is currently positioned to challenge them.

These Mexican poly-drug organizations traffic heroin, methamphetamine, cocaine, and marijuana throughout the United States, using established transportation routes and distribution networks. While all of these Mexican TCOs transport wholesale quantities of illicit drugs into the United States, the Sinaloa Cartel appears to be the most active supplier. The Sinaloa Cartel leverages its expansive resources and dominance in Mexico to facilitate the smuggling and transportation of drugs throughout the United States.

Archived from the original on 21 March Retrieved 20 March Archived from the original on 27 March City of Denison Iowa. Archived from the original on 6 November The Economist. Annual report: the state of the drugs problem in Europe PDF. United States Department of Defense. Archived from the original PDF on 11 September United Nations Publications. Archived from the original on 26 April Gootenberg P, ed. Cocaine: Global Histories.

London: Routledge. Madge T Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing Company. Spillane JF, ed. Feiling T London: Penguin. Wikiquote has quotations related to Cocaine. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cocaine.

Look up cocaine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Recreational drug use. Calea zacatechichi Silene capensis. Drug culture. Coffee break Coffeehouse Latte art Teahouse. Arguments for and against drug prohibition Capital punishment for drug trafficking Cognitive liberty Designer drug Drug court Drug possession Drug test Narc Politics of drug abuse War on drugs Mexican drug war Plan Colombia Philippine drug war Zero tolerance.

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Drugs which induce euphoria. See also: Recreational drug use. Adapromine Amantadine Bromantane Memantine Rimantadine. Oxiracetam Phenylpiracetam Phenylpiracetam hydrazide. ATC code : N06B. Local anesthetics primarily sodium channel blockers N01B. Amoproxan 3,4,5-Trimethoxybenzoyl 3- p-Fluorobenzoyloxy tropane. Ancient anaesthesia. Aconitum aconite Atropa belladonna belladonna Cannabis medical use Castoreum Coca Conium hemlock Datura innoxia thorn-apple Datura metel devil’s trumpet Hyoscyamus niger henbane Lactucarium Mandragora officinarum mandrake Opium Saussurea saw-wort Willow.

Ion channel modulators. L-type-selective : Bay K Amiloride Benzamil Triamterene. Glibenclamide Lonidamine Piretanide. See here instead. Monoamine reuptake inhibitors. Others: Antihistamines e. Others: A Amoxapine Antihistamines e.

Amiodarone Amphetamines e. Sigma receptor modulators. Authority control. National Archives US. Categories : Cocaine Alkaloids found in Erythroxylum Anorectics Benzoate esters Carboxylate esters Cardiac stimulants Euphoriants German inventions Glycine receptor agonists Local anesthetics Methyl esters Otologicals Secondary metabolites Serotonin—norepinephrine—dopamine reuptake inhibitors Sigma agonists Stimulants Sympathomimetic amines Teratogens Tropane alkaloids found in Erythroxylum coca Vasoconstrictors.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read View source View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons Wikinews Wikiquote Wiktionary. Neurocaine, [1] Goprelto, [2] Numbrino, [3] others. Benzoylmethylecgonine, coke, blow, crack in freebase form.

Micromedex Detailed Consumer Information. The Windows port led to Photoshop reaching a wider mass market audience as Microsoft ‘s global reach expanded within the next few years. Photoshop files have default file extension as. PSD , which stands for ” P hoto s hop D ocument”. This is in contrast to many other file formats e. JPG or. GIF that restrict content to provide streamlined, predictable functionality.

A PSD file has a maximum height and width of 30, pixels, and a length limit of two gigabytes. These formats are required to use the file in publications or on the web. Photoshop can also create and use files with the extension. PSB, which stands for “Photoshop Big” also known as “large document format”. The dimension limit was apparently chosen arbitrarily by Adobe, not based on computer arithmetic constraints it is not close to a power of two, as is 30, but for ease of software testing.

Photoshop functionality can be extended by add-on programs called Photoshop plugins or plug-ins. Adobe creates some plugins, such as Adobe Camera Raw, but third-party companies develop most plugins, according to Adobe’s specifications. Some are free and some are commercial software. Most plugins work with only Photoshop or Photoshop-compatible hosts, but a few can also be run as standalone applications. There are various types of plugins, such as filter, export, import, selection, color correction, and automation.

The most popular plugins are the filter plugins also known as a 8bf plugins , available under the Filter menu in Photoshop. Filter plugins can either modify the current image or create content. Below are some popular types of plugins, and some well-known companies associated with them:. Adobe Camera Raw also known as ACR and Camera Raw is a special plugin, supplied free by Adobe, used primarily to read and process raw image files so that the resulting images can be processed by Photoshop.

Upon loading Photoshop, a sidebar with a variety of tools with multiple image-editing functions appears to the left of the screen. These tools typically fall under the categories of drawing ; painting ; measuring and navigation ; selection ; typing ; and retouching.

These can be expanded to reveal similar tools. In some newer versions hovering along the tools gives a small Video glimpse of the tool. Photoshop includes a few versions of the pen tool. The pen tool creates precise paths that can be manipulated using anchor points.

The free form pen tool allows the user to draw paths freehand, and with the magnetic pen tool, the drawn path attaches closely to outlines of objects in an image, which is useful for isolating them from a background.

The Clone Stamp tool duplicates one part of an image to another part of the same image by way of a brush. The duplication is either in full or in part depending on the mode. The user can also clone part of one layer to another layer. The Clone Stamp tool is useful for duplicating objects or removing a defect in an image. Photoshop provides an array of shape tools including rectangles, rounded rectangles, ellipses, polygons and lines.

These shapes can be manipulated by the pen tool, direct selection tool etc. In addition, Photoshop provides its own shapes like animals, signs and plants. The eyedropper tool selects a color from an area of the image that is clicked, and samples it for future use.

Selection tools are used to select all or any part of a picture to perform cut, copy, edit, or retouching operations. The crop tool can be used to select a particular area of an image and discard the portions outside the chosen section. This tool assists in creating a focus point on an image and unnecessary or excess space. The crop tool is in the tools palette, which is located on the right side of the document.

By placing the cursor over the image, the user can drag the cursor to the desired area. Once the Enter key is pressed, the area outside the rectangle will be cropped. The area outside the rectangle is the discarded data, which allows for the file size to be decreased.

The slice and slice select tools, like the crop tool, are used in isolating parts of images. The slice tool can be used to divide an image into different sections, and these separate parts can be used as pieces of a web page design once HTML and CSS are applied.

The move tool can be used to drag the entirety of a single layer or more if they are selected. Alternatively, once an area of an image is highlighted, the move tool can be used to manually relocate the selected piece to anywhere on the canvas.

The marquee is a tool that can make selections that are a single row, single column, rectangular and elliptical. This tool can also crop an image; it allows for better control. In contrast to the crop tool, the marquee tool allows for more adjustments to the selected area before cropping. The only marquee tool that does not allow cropping is the elliptical. Although the single row and column marquee tools allow for cropping, they are not ideal, because they only crop a line.

The rectangular marquee tool is the preferred option. Once the tool has been selected, dragging the tool across the desired area will select it.

The selected area will be outlined by dotted lines, referred to as “marching ants”. To set a specific size or ratio, the tool options bar provides these settings. Before selecting an area, the desired size or ratio must be set by adjusting the width and height. Any changes such as color, filters, location, etc.

To crop the selection, the user must go to the image tab and select crop. The lasso tool is similar to the marquee tool, however, the user can make a custom selection by drawing it freehand. The regular lasso tool allows the user to have drawing capabilities. Photoshop will complete the selection once the mouse button is released. The user may also complete the selection by connecting the end point to the starting point. The “marching ants” will indicate if a selection has been made.

The polygonal lasso tool will draw only straight lines, which makes it an ideal choice for images with many straight lines. Unlike the regular lasso tool, the user must continually click around the image to outline the shape. To complete the selection, the user must connect the end point to the starting point just like the regular lasso tool. Magnetic lasso tool are considered the smart tool. It can do the same as the other two, but it can also detect the edges of an image once the user selects a starting point.

It detects by examining the color pixels as the cursor moves over the desired area. Closing the selection is the same as the other two, which should also should display the “marching ants” once the selection has been closed. The quick selection tool selects areas based on edges, similarly to the magnetic lasso tool.

The difference between this tool and the lasso tool is that there is no starting and ending point. For this reason, the selected area can be added onto as much as possible without starting over. By dragging the cursor over the desired area, the quick selection tool detects the edges of the image. The “marching ants” allow the user to know what is currently being selected.

Once the user is done, the selected area can be edited without affecting the rest of the image. One of the features that makes this tool especially user friendly is that the SHIFT key is not needed to add more to the selection; by default, extra mouse clicks will be added to the selection rather than creating a new selection. The magic wand tool selects areas based on pixels of similar values. One click will select all neighboring pixels of similar value within a tolerance level set by the user.

If the eyedropper tool is selected in the options bar, then the magic wand can determine the value needed to evaluate the pixels; this is based on the sample size setting in the eyedropper tool. This tool is inferior to the quick selection tool which works much the same but with much better results and more intuitive controls. The user must decide what settings to use or if the image is right for this tool.

The Eraser tool erases content based on the active layer. If the user is on the text layer, then any text across which the tool is dragged will be erased. The eraser will convert the pixels to transparent, unless the background layer is selected. The size and style of the eraser can be selected in the options bar. This tool is unique in that it can take the form of the paintbrush and pencil tools. In addition to the straight eraser tool, there are two more available options — background eraser and magic eraser.

The background eraser deletes any part of the image that is on the edge of an object. This tool is often used to extract objects from the background. The magic eraser tool deletes based on similar colored pixels.

It is very similar to the magic wand tool. This tool is ideal for deleting areas with the same color or tone that contrasts with the rest of the image. Using simple combinations of keys video layers can easily be modified, with other features such as adding text and creating animations using single images.

With the Extended version of Photoshop CS5, 2D elements of an artwork can easily become three-dimensional with the click of a button. Extrusions of texts, an available library of materials for three-dimensional, and even wrapping two-dimensional images around 3D geometry. Third-party plugins have also been added to the most recent version of Photoshop where technologies such as the iPad have integrated the software with different types of applications.

Applications like the Adobe Eazel painting app allows the user to easily create paintings with their fingertips and use an array of different paint from dry to wet in order to create rich color blending. The program will feature cloud syncing with other devices and a simpler interface than the desktop version.

The plug-in allows users to remove noise without the side-effect of over-sharpening, add grain, and even perform post-crop vignetting.

From version Artists can add color, adjust the shape or rotate the angles of imported models, or design original 3D models from scratch. The Color Replacement Tool allows the user to change the color, while maintaining the highlights and shadows of the original image, of pieces of the image. By selecting Brushes and right clicking, the Color Replacement Tool is the third option down.

What is important to note with this tool is the foreground color. The foreground color is what will be applied when painting along the chosen part of the image with the Color Replacement tool. Photoshop and derivatives such as Photoshopped or just Shopped have become verbs that are sometimes used to refer to images edited by Photoshop, [47] or any image manipulation program.

The same happens not only in English but as the Portuguese Wikipedia entry for image manipulation attests, even in that language, with the trademark being followed by the Portuguese verb termination -ar, yielding the word “photoshopar” to photoshop.

Such derivatives are discouraged by Adobe [6] because, in order to maintain validity and protect the trademark from becoming generic , trademarks must be used as proper nouns. Photoshop’s naming scheme was initially based on version numbers, from version 0. Adobe published 7 major and many minor versions before the October introduction of version 8.

In February Adobe donated the source code of the 1. The first Photoshop CS was commercially released in October as the eighth major version of Photoshop. Photoshop CS increased user control with a reworked file browser augmenting search versatility, sorting and sharing capabilities and the Histogram Palette which monitors changes in the image as they are made to the document.

Match Color was also introduced in CS, which reads color data to achieve a uniform expression throughout a series of pictures. Photoshop CS2, released in May , expanded on its predecessor with a new set of tools and features. It included an upgraded Spot Healing Brush, which is mainly used for handling common photographic problems such as blemishes, red-eye, noise, blurring and lens distortion.

One of the most significant inclusions in CS2 was the implementation of Smart Objects, which allows users to scale and transform images and vector illustrations without losing image quality, as well as create linked duplicates of embedded graphics so that a single edit updates across multiple iterations. Adobe responded to feedback from the professional media industry by implementing non-destructive editing as well as the producing and modifying of Bit High Dynamic Range HDR images, which are optimal for 3D rendering and advanced compositing.

FireWire Previews could also be viewed on a monitor via a direct export feature. Image Warping makes it easy to digitally distort an image into a shape by choosing on-demand presets or by dragging control points. The File Browser was upgraded to Adobe Bridge, which functioned as a hub for productivity, imagery and creativity, providing multi-view file browsing and smooth cross-product integration across Adobe Creative Suite 2 software. Camera Raw version 3. Photoshop CS2 brought a streamlined interface, making it easier to access features for specific instances.

In CS2 users were also given the ability to create their own custom presets, which was meant to save time and increase productivity. CS3 improves on features from previous versions of Photoshop and introduces new tools. One of the most significant is the streamlined interface which allows increased performance, speed, and efficiency.

There is also improved support for Camera RAW files which allow users to process images with higher speed and conversion quality. The Black and White adjustment option improves control over manual grayscale conversions with a dialog box similar to that of Channel Mixer. There is more control over print options and better management with Adobe Bridge.

The Clone Source palette is introduced, adding more options to the clone stamp tool. Other features include the nondestructive Smart Filters, optimizing graphics for mobile devices, [53] Fill Light and Dust Busting tools.

CS3 Extended includes everything in CS3 and additional features. There are tools for 3D graphic file formats, video enhancement and animation, and comprehensive image measurement and analysis tools with DICOM file support. As for video editing, CS3 supports layers and video formatting so users can edit video files per frame. They were also made available through Adobe’s online store and Adobe Authorized Resellers.

CS4 features smoother panning and zooming, allowing faster image editing at a high magnification. The interface is more simplified with its tab-based interface [56] making it cleaner to work with. Photoshop CS4 features a new 3D engine allowing the conversion of gradient maps to 3D objects, adding depth to layers and text, and getting print-quality output with the new ray-tracing rendering engine. It supports common 3D formats; the new Adjustment and Mask panels; content-aware scaling seam carving ; [57] fluid canvas rotation and File display options.

Adobe released Photoshop CS4 Extended, which has the features of Adobe Photoshop CS4, plus capabilities for scientific imaging, 3D, motion graphics, accurate image analysis and high-end film and video users. The faster 3D engine allows users to paint directly on 3D models, wrap 2D images around 3D shapes and animate 3D objects.

Photoshop CS5 was launched on April 12, In May , Adobe Creative Suite 5. Its version of Photoshop, The community also had a hand in the additions made to CS5 as 30 new features and improvements were included by request. These include automatic image straightening, the Rule-of-Thirds cropping tool, color pickup, and saving a bit image as a JPEG. Another feature includes the Adobe Mini Bridge, which allows for efficient file browsing and management.

A new materials library was added, providing more options such as Chrome, Glass, and Cork. The new Shadow Catcher tool can be used to further enhance 3D objects.

For motion graphics, the tools can be applied to over more than one frame in a video sequence. Photoshop CS6, released in May , added new creative design tools and provided a redesigned interface [65] with a focus on enhanced performance. Adobe Photoshop CS6 brought a suite of tools for video editing. Color and exposure adjustments, as well as layers, are among a few things that are featured in this new editor.

Upon completion of editing, the user is presented with a handful of options of exporting into a few popular formats. CS6 brings the “straighten” tool to Photoshop, where a user simply draws a line anywhere on an image, and the canvas will reorient itself so that the line drawn becomes horizontal, and adjusts the media accordingly. This was created with the intention that users will draw a line parallel to a plane in the image, and reorient the image to that plane to more easily achieve certain perspectives.

CS6 allows background saving, which means that while another document is compiling and archiving itself, it is possible to simultaneously edit an image. CS6 also features a customizable auto-save feature, preventing any work from being lost. With version Adobe also announced that CS6 will be the last suite sold with perpetual licenses in favor of the new Creative Cloud subscriptions, though they will continue to provide OS compatibility support as well as bug fixes and security updates as necessary.

Starting January 9, , CS6 is no longer available for purchase, making a Creative Cloud license the only purchase option going forward. Photoshop CC As the next major version after CS6, it is only available as part of a Creative Cloud subscription. Major features in this version include new Smart Sharpen, Intelligent Upsampling, and Camera Shake Reduction for reducing blur caused by camera shake.

Since the initial launch, Adobe has released two additional feature-bearing updates. The first, version The major features in this version were Adobe Generator, a Node. Photoshop Version CC features improvements to content-aware tools, two new blur tools spin blur and path blur and a new focus mask feature that enables the user to select parts of an image based on whether they are in focus or not.

Other minor improvements have been made, including speed increases for certain tasks. Photoshop CC was released on June 15, Adobe added various creative features including Adobe Stock, which is a library of custom stock images.

It also includes and have the ability to have more than one layer style. The updated UI as of November 30, , delivers a cleaner and more consistent look throughout Photoshop, and the user can quickly perform common tasks using a new set of gestures on touch-enabled devices like Microsoft Surface Pro.

Photoshop CC was released on November 2, It introduced a new template selector when creating new documents, the ability to search for tools, panels and help articles for Photoshop, support for SVG OpenType fonts and other small improvements.

Photoshop CC version 19 was released on October 18, It featured an overhaul to the brush organization system, allowing for more properties such as color and opacity to be saved per-brush and for brushes to be categorized in folders and sub-folders. It also added brush stroke smoothing, and over brushes created by Kyle T. Webster following Adobe’s acquisition of his website, KyleBrush.

Никто не знает, как поведет себя общество, узнав, что группы фундаменталистов дважды за прошлый год угрожали ядерным объектам, расположенным на территории США. Ядерное нападение было, однако, не единственной угрозой. Только в прошлом месяце благодаря «ТРАНСТЕКСТУ» удалось предотвратить одну из самых изощренных террористических акций, с которыми приходилось сталкиваться агентству. Некая антиправительственная организация разработала план под кодовым названием «Шервудский лес».

– Танкадо оставил нам только один выход-признать существование «ТРАНСТЕКСТА». Такая возможность. Последний шанс. Но мы его упустили. – Не могу с ним не согласиться, – заметил Фонтейн.

Cocaine also blocks sodium channels , thereby interfering with the propagation of action potentials ; [] [71] thus, like lignocaine and novocaine , it acts as a local anesthetic. It also functions on the binding sites to the dopamine and serotonin sodium dependent transport area as targets as separate mechanisms from its reuptake of those transporters; unique to its local anesthetic value which makes it in a class of functionality different from both its own derived phenyltropanes analogues which have that removed.

In addition to this, cocaine has some target binding to the site of the Kappa-opioid receptor. Recent research points to an important role of circadian mechanisms [] and clock genes [] in behavioral actions of cocaine. Cocaine effects, further, are shown to be potentiated for the user when used in conjunction with new surroundings and stimuli, and otherwise novel environs.

Cocaine in its purest form is a white, pearly product. Cocaine appearing in powder form is a salt , typically cocaine hydrochloride.

Street cocaine is often adulterated or “cut” with talc , lactose , sucrose , glucose , mannitol , inositol , caffeine , procaine , phencyclidine , phenytoin , lignocaine , strychnine , levamisole , amphetamine , or heroin. The color of “crack” cocaine depends upon several factors including the origin of the cocaine used, the method of preparation — with ammonia or baking soda — and the presence of impurities. It will generally range from white to a yellowish cream to a light brown.

Its texture will also depend on the adulterants, origin, and processing of the powdered cocaine, and the method of converting the base. It ranges from a crumbly texture, sometimes extremely oily, to a hard, almost crystalline nature. Cocaine — a tropane alkaloid — is a weakly alkaline compound, and can therefore combine with acidic compounds to form salts. Different salts dissolve to a greater or lesser extent in various solvents — the hydrochloride salt is polar in character and is quite soluble in water.

As the name implies, “freebase” is the base form of cocaine, as opposed to the salt form. It is practically insoluble in water whereas hydrochloride salt is water-soluble. Smoking freebase cocaine has the additional effect of releasing methylecgonidine into the user’s system due to the pyrolysis of the substance a side effect which insufflating or injecting powder cocaine does not create.

Some research suggests that smoking freebase cocaine can be even more cardiotoxic than other routes of administration [] because of methylecgonidine’s effects on lung tissue [] and liver tissue. Pure cocaine is prepared by neutralizing its compounding salt with an alkaline solution, which will precipitate non-polar basic cocaine. It is further refined through aqueous-solvent liquid—liquid extraction.

Crack is usually smoked in a glass pipe, and once inhaled, it passes from the lungs directly to the central nervous system , producing an almost immediate “high” that can be very powerful — this initial crescendo of stimulation is known as a “rush”. This is followed by an equally intense low, leaving the user craving more drug. Addiction to crack usually occurs with four to six weeks; much more rapidly than with regular cocaine.

This effectively destroys some of the cocaine and yields a sharp, acrid, and foul-tasting smoke. The origin of the name “crack” comes from the “crackling” sound and hence the onomatopoeic moniker “crack” that is produced when the cocaine and its impurities i.

Coca herbal infusion also referred to as coca tea is used in coca-leaf producing countries much as any herbal medicinal infusion would elsewhere in the world. The free and legal commercialization of dried coca leaves under the form of filtration bags to be used as “coca tea” has been actively promoted by the governments of Peru and Bolivia for many years as a drink having medicinal powers.

In Peru, the National Coca Company , a state-run corporation, sells cocaine-infused teas and other medicinal products and also exports leaves to the U. Visitors to the city of Cuzco in Peru, and La Paz in Bolivia are greeted with the offering of coca leaf infusions prepared in teapots with whole coca leaves purportedly to help the newly arrived traveler overcome the malaise of high altitude sickness.

One study on coca leaf infusion used with counseling in the treatment of 23 addicted coca-paste smokers in Lima , Peru found that the relapses rate fell from 4. The duration of abstinence increased from an average of 32 days before treatment to This suggests that coca leaf infusion plus counseling may be effective at preventing relapse during cocaine addiction treatment.

There is little information on the pharmacological and toxicological effects of consuming coca tea. Urine specimens were also analyzed from an individual who consumed one cup of coca tea and it was determined that enough cocaine and cocaine-related metabolites were present to produce a positive drug test. Since then, Robert Robinson and Edward Leete have made significant contributions to the mechanism of the synthesis. The second addition occurs through a Claisen condensation. This produces a racemic mixture of the 2-substituted pyrrolidine, with the retention of the thioester from the Claisen condensation.

In formation of tropinone from racemic ethyl [2,C 2 ] 4 Nmethylpyrrolidinyl oxobutanoate there is no preference for either stereoisomer. The stereoselectivity of this reaction was further investigated through study of prochiral methylene hydrogen discrimination. The benzoyl moiety required for the formation of the cocaine diester is synthesized from phenylalanine via cinnamic acid. The biosynthesis begins with L- Glutamine , which is derived to L- ornithine in plants.

The major contribution of L-ornithine and L- arginine as a precursor to the tropane ring was confirmed by Edward Leete. In some animals, the urea cycle derives putrescine from ornithine. L-ornithine is converted to L-arginine, [] which is then decarboxylated via PLP to form agmatine. Hydrolysis of the imine derives N -carbamoylputrescine followed with hydrolysis of the urea to form putrescine.

The separate pathways of converting ornithine to putrescine in plants and animals have converged. A SAM-dependent N -methylation of putrescine gives the N -methylputrescine product, which then undergoes oxidative deamination by the action of diamine oxidase to yield the aminoaldehyde.

The biosynthesis of the tropane alkaloid is still not understood. Hemscheidt proposes that Robinson’s acetonedicarboxylate emerges as a potential intermediate for this reaction.

Decarboxylation leads to tropane alkaloid formation. The reduction of tropinone is mediated by NADPH -dependent reductase enzymes, which have been characterized in multiple plant species.

Cocaine and its major metabolites may be quantified in blood, plasma, or urine to monitor for use, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning, or assist in the forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal violation or sudden death.

Most commercial cocaine immunoassay screening tests cross-react appreciably with the major cocaine metabolites, but chromatographic techniques can easily distinguish and separately measure each of these substances. When interpreting the results of a test, it is important to consider the cocaine usage history of the individual, since a chronic user can develop tolerance to doses that would incapacitate a cocaine-naive individual, and the chronic user often has high baseline values of the metabolites in his system.

Cautious interpretation of testing results may allow a distinction between passive or active usage, and between smoking versus other routes of administration. Cocaine may be detected by law enforcement using the Scott reagent. The test can easily generate false positives for common substances and must be confirmed with a laboratory test. The shade of brown shown by the chloroform is proportional to the cocaine content.

This test is not cross sensitive to heroin, methamphetamine, benzocaine, procaine and a number of other drugs but other chemicals could cause false positives. According to a United Nations report, England and Wales are the countries with the highest rate of cocaine usage 2. Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in Europe behind cannabis. Since the mids, overall cocaine usage in Europe has been on the rise, but usage rates and attitudes tend to vary between countries.

Approximately 17 million Europeans 5. About 1. The ratio of male to female users is approximately 3. In London had the highest amount of cocaine in its sewage out of 50 European cities. Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in the United States behind cannabis [] and the U.

In the s and s, the drug became particularly popular in the disco culture as cocaine usage was very common and popular in many discos such as Studio Treatment with contingency management , such as providing vouchers for retail items contingent upon objectively-verified abstinence from recent drug use, has been shown in randomized clinical trials to significantly reduce the likelihood of having a positive test for the presence of cocaine. TA-CD is an active vaccine [] developed by the Xenova Group which is used to negate the effects of cocaine, making it suitable for use in treatment of addiction.

It is created by combining norcocaine with inactivated cholera toxin. Indigenous peoples of South America have chewed the leaves of Erythroxylon coca — a plant that contains vital nutrients as well as numerous alkaloids , including cocaine — for over a thousand years. The remains of coca leaves have been found with ancient Peruvian mummies, and pottery from the time period depicts humans with bulged cheeks, indicating the presence of something on which they are chewing.

When the Spanish arrived in South America , the conquistadors at first banned coca as an “evil agent of devil”. When they wished to make themselves drunk and out of judgment they chewed a mixture of tobacco and coca leaves which make them go as they were out of their wittes.

In , Padre Blas Valera wrote:. Coca protects the body from many ailments, and our doctors use it in powdered form to reduce the swelling of wounds, to strengthen broken bones, to expel cold from the body or prevent it from entering, and to cure rotten wounds or sores that are full of maggots. And if it does so much for outward ailments, will not its singular virtue have even greater effect in the entrails of those who eat it?

Although the stimulant and hunger-suppressant properties of coca had been known for many centuries, the isolation of the cocaine alkaloid was not achieved until Various European scientists had attempted to isolate cocaine, but none had been successful for two reasons: the knowledge of chemistry required was insufficient at the time, and contemporary conditions of sea-shipping from South America could degrade the cocaine in the plant samples available to European chemists.

The cocaine alkaloid was first isolated by the German chemist Friedrich Gaedcke in Gaedcke named the alkaloid “erythroxyline”, and published a description in the journal Archiv der Pharmazie.

Carl Scherzer , a scientist aboard the Novara an Austrian frigate sent by Emperor Franz Joseph to circle the globe , to bring him a large amount of coca leaves from South America. He wrote of the alkaloid’s “colourless transparent prisms” and said that “Its solutions have an alkaline reaction, a bitter taste, promote the flow of saliva and leave a peculiar numbness, followed by a sense of cold when applied to the tongue.

Because of the former use of cocaine as a local anesthetic , a suffix “-caine” was later extracted and used to form names of synthetic local anesthetics. With the discovery of this new alkaloid, Western medicine was quick to exploit the possible uses of this plant.

He prepared two separate jars, one containing a cocaine-salt solution, with the other containing merely saltwater. He then submerged a frog’s legs into the two jars, one leg in the treatment and one in the control solution, and proceeded to stimulate the legs in several different ways.

The leg that had been immersed in the cocaine solution reacted very differently from the leg that had been immersed in saltwater. Karl Koller a close associate of Sigmund Freud , who would write about cocaine later experimented with cocaine for ophthalmic usage.

In an infamous experiment in , he experimented upon himself by applying a cocaine solution to his own eye and then pricking it with pins. His findings were presented to the Heidelberg Ophthalmological Society. Also in , Jellinek demonstrated the effects of cocaine as a respiratory system anesthetic.

In , William Halsted demonstrated nerve-block anesthesia, [] and James Leonard Corning demonstrated peridural anesthesia. In , an Italian doctor , Paolo Mantegazza , returned from Peru , where he had witnessed first-hand the use of coca by the local indigenous peoples. He proceeded to experiment on himself and upon his return to Milan , he wrote a paper in which he described the effects.

In this paper, he declared coca and cocaine at the time they were assumed to be the same as being useful medicinally, in the treatment of “a furred tongue in the morning, flatulence , and whitening of the teeth. A chemist named Angelo Mariani who read Mantegazza’s paper became immediately intrigued with coca and its economic potential. In , Mariani started marketing a wine called Vin Mariani , which had been treated with coca leaves, to become coca wine. The ethanol in wine acted as a solvent and extracted the cocaine from the coca leaves, altering the drink’s effect.

It contained 6 mg cocaine per ounce of wine, but Vin Mariani which was to be exported contained 7. A “pinch of coca leaves” was included in John Styth Pemberton ‘s original recipe for Coca-Cola , though the company began using decocainized leaves in when the Pure Food and Drug Act was passed. In cocaine began to be used to treat morphine addiction. Exhilaration and lasting euphoria, which in no way differs from the normal euphoria of the healthy person.

You perceive an increase of self-control and possess more vitality and capacity for work. In other words, you are simply normal, and it is soon hard to believe you are under the influence of any drug. Long intensive physical work is performed without any fatigue. This result is enjoyed without any of the unpleasant after-effects that follow exhilaration brought about by alcoholic beverages. No craving for the further use of cocaine appears after the first, or even after repeated taking of the drug.

By the U. By the late Victorian era , cocaine use had appeared as a vice in literature. For example, it was injected by Arthur Conan Doyle ‘s fictional Sherlock Holmes , generally to offset the boredom he felt when he was not working on a case. In early 20th-century Memphis, Tennessee , cocaine was sold in neighborhood drugstores on Beale Street , costing five or ten cents for a small boxful.

Stevedores along the Mississippi River used the drug as a stimulant, and white employers encouraged its use by black laborers. In the song ” Minnie the Moocher “, Cab Calloway heavily references cocaine use. He uses the phrase “kicking the gong around”, slang for cocaine use; describes titular character Minnie as “tall and skinny;” and describes Smokey Joe as “cokey”. During the mids, amidst World War II, cocaine was considered for inclusion as an ingredient of a future generation of ‘pep pills’ for the German military, code named D-IX.

In modern popular culture, references to cocaine are common. The drug has a glamorous image associated with the wealthy, famous and powerful, and is said to make users “feel rich and beautiful”. In many countries, cocaine is a popular recreational drug.

In the United States, the development of “crack” cocaine introduced the substance to a generally poorer inner-city market. The use of the powder form has stayed relatively constant, experiencing a new height of use during the late s and early s in the U. Cocaine use is prevalent across all socioeconomic strata, including age, demographics, economic, social, political, religious, and livelihood. The estimated U. An American representative in the World Health Assembly banned the publication of the study, because it seemed to make a case for the positive uses of cocaine.

An excerpt of the report strongly conflicted with accepted paradigms, for example, “that occasional cocaine use does not typically lead to severe or even minor physical or social problems. This led to the decision to discontinue publication. A part of the study was recuperated and published in , including profiles of cocaine use in 20 countries, but are unavailable as of [update]. In October it was reported that the use of cocaine in Australia has doubled since monitoring began in A problem with illegal cocaine use, especially in the higher volumes used to combat fatigue rather than increase euphoria by long-term users, is the risk of ill effects or damage caused by the compounds used in adulteration.

The normal adulterants for profit are inactive sugars, usually mannitol, creatine, or glucose, so introducing active adulterants gives the illusion of purity and to ‘stretch’ or make it so a dealer can sell more product than without the adulterants.

The production, distribution, and sale of cocaine products is restricted and illegal in most contexts in most countries as regulated by the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs , and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.

In the United States the manufacture, importation, possession, and distribution of cocaine are additionally regulated by the Controlled Substances Act. Some countries, such as Peru and Bolivia, permit the cultivation of coca leaf for traditional consumption by the local indigenous population , but nevertheless, prohibit the production, sale, and consumption of cocaine. The US federal government instituted a national labeling requirement for cocaine and cocaine-containing products through the Pure Food and Drug Act of While this act is often seen as the start of prohibition, the act itself was not actually a prohibition on cocaine, but instead set up a regulatory and licensing regime.

Before the early s, the primary problem caused by cocaine use was portrayed by newspapers to be addiction, not violence or crime, and the cocaine user was represented as an upper- or middle-class White person. In , according to the United Nations , tonnes of cocaine were seized globally by law enforcement authorities. Colombia seized t, the United States t, Europe 79 t, Peru 14 t, Bolivia 9 t, and the rest of the world t.

Colombia is as of the world’s largest cocaine producer, with production more than tripling since This, combined with crop reductions in Bolivia and Peru, made Colombia the nation with the largest area of coca under cultivation after the mids. Coca grown for traditional purposes by indigenous communities, a use which is still present and is permitted by Colombian laws, only makes up a small fragment of total coca production, most of which is used for the illegal drug trade.

An interview with a coca farmer published in described a mode of production by acid-base extraction that has changed little since Roughly pounds kg of leaves were harvested per hectare , six times per year. The leaves were dried for half a day, then chopped into small pieces with a string trimmer and sprinkled with a small amount of powdered cement replacing sodium carbonate from former times. Several hundred pounds of this mixture were soaked in 50 US gallons L of gasoline for a day, then the gasoline was removed and the leaves were pressed for the remaining liquid, after which they could be discarded.

Then battery acid weak sulfuric acid was used, one bucket per 55 lb 25 kg of leaves, to create a phase separation in which the cocaine free base in the gasoline was acidified and extracted into a few buckets of “murky-looking smelly liquid”.

Once powdered caustic soda was added to this, the cocaine precipitated and could be removed by filtration through a cloth. The resulting material, when dried, was termed pasta and sold by the farmer. The pound yearly harvest of leaves from a hectare produced 6 lb 2. Repeated recrystallization from solvents, producing pasta lavada and eventually crystalline cocaine were performed at specialized laboratories after the sale.

Attempts to eradicate coca fields through the use of defoliants have devastated part of the farming economy in some coca-growing regions of Colombia, and strains appear to have been developed that are more resistant or immune to their use.

Whether these strains are natural mutations or the product of human tampering is unclear. These strains have also shown to be more potent than those previously grown, increasing profits for the drug cartels responsible for the exporting of cocaine. Although production fell temporarily, coca crops rebounded in numerous smaller fields in Colombia, rather than the larger plantations. The cultivation of coca has become an attractive economic decision for many growers due to the combination of several factors, including the lack of other employment alternatives, the lower profitability of alternative crops in official crop substitution programs, the eradication-related damages to non-drug farms, the spread of new strains of the coca plant due to persistent worldwide demand.

The latest estimate provided by the U. As of the end of , the seizure operations of Colombian cocaine carried out in different countries have totaled Department of State’s estimates. Synthesizing cocaine could eliminate the high visibility and low reliability of offshore sources and international smuggling, replacing them with clandestine domestic laboratories, as are common for illicit methamphetamine , but is rarely done.

Natural cocaine remains the lowest cost and highest quality supply of cocaine. Formation of inactive stereoisomers cocaine has four chiral centres — 1 R 2 R , 3 S , and 5 S , two of them dependent, hence eight possible stereoisomers plus synthetic by-products limits the yield and purity.

Organized criminal gangs operating on a large scale dominate the cocaine trade. The primary cocaine importation points in the United States have been in Arizona , southern California , southern Florida , and Texas.

Typically, land vehicles are driven across the U. Sixty-five percent of cocaine enters the United States through Mexico, and the vast majority of the rest enters through Florida. Cocaine traffickers from Colombia and Mexico have established a labyrinth of smuggling routes throughout the Caribbean, the Bahama Island chain, and South Florida. They often hire traffickers from Mexico or the Dominican Republic to transport the drug using a variety of smuggling techniques to U.

These include airdrops of to kg 1, to 1, lb in the Bahama Islands or off the coast of Puerto Rico , mid-ocean boat-to-boat transfers of to 2, kg 1, to 4, lb , and the commercial shipment of tonnes of cocaine through the port of Miami.

Another route of cocaine traffic goes through Chile, which is primarily used for cocaine produced in Bolivia since the nearest seaports lie in northern Chile.

While the price of cocaine is higher in Chile than in Peru and Bolivia, the final destination is usually Europe, especially Spain where drug dealing networks exist among South American immigrants. Cocaine is also carried in small, concealed, kilogram quantities across the border by couriers known as ” mules ” or “mulas” , who cross a border either legally, for example, through a port or airport, or illegally elsewhere.

The drugs may be strapped to the waist or legs or hidden in bags, or hidden in the body. If the mule gets through without being caught, the gangs will reap most of the profits.

If caught, gangs will sever all links and the mule will usually stand trial for trafficking alone. Bulk cargo ships are also used to smuggle cocaine to staging sites in the western Caribbean— Gulf of Mexico area. These vessels are typically —foot 50—80 m coastal freighters that carry an average cocaine load of approximately 2. Commercial fishing vessels are also used for smuggling operations. In areas with a high volume of recreational traffic, smugglers use the same types of vessels, such as go-fast boats , like those used by the local populations.

Sophisticated drug subs are the latest tool drug runners are using to bring cocaine north from Colombia, it was reported on 20 March Although the vessels were once viewed as a quirky sideshow in the drug war, they are becoming faster, more seaworthy, and capable of carrying bigger loads of drugs than earlier models, according to those charged with catching them.

Cocaine is readily available in all major countries’ metropolitan areas. According to the Summer Pulse Check , published by the U. In the West, cocaine usage was lower, which was thought to be due to a switch to methamphetamine among some users; methamphetamine is cheaper, three and a half times more powerful, and lasts 12—24 times longer with each dose.

These amounts and prices are very popular among young people because they are inexpensive and easily concealed on one’s body. Quality and price can vary dramatically depending on supply and demand, and on geographic region. Between and , the value of the market remained basically stable”. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Tropane alkaloid and stimulant drug. For other uses, see Cocaine disambiguation. US DailyMed : Cocaine. IUPAC name. Methyl 1 R ,2 R ,3 S ,5 S benzoyloxy methylazabicyclo[3.

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Photoshop CC As the next major version after CS6, it is only available as part of a Creative Cloud subscription. Major features in this version include new Smart Sharpen, Intelligent Upsampling, and Camera Shake Reduction for reducing blur caused by camera shake. Since the initial launch, Adobe has released two additional feature-bearing updates. The first, version The major features in this version were Adobe Generator, a Node. Photoshop Version CC features improvements to content-aware tools, two new blur tools spin blur and path blur and a new focus mask feature that enables the user to select parts of an image based on whether they are in focus or not.

Other minor improvements have been made, including speed increases for certain tasks. Photoshop CC was released on June 15, Adobe added various creative features including Adobe Stock, which is a library of custom stock images.

It also includes and have the ability to have more than one layer style. The updated UI as of November 30, , delivers a cleaner and more consistent look throughout Photoshop, and the user can quickly perform common tasks using a new set of gestures on touch-enabled devices like Microsoft Surface Pro. Photoshop CC was released on November 2, It introduced a new template selector when creating new documents, the ability to search for tools, panels and help articles for Photoshop, support for SVG OpenType fonts and other small improvements.

Photoshop CC version 19 was released on October 18, It featured an overhaul to the brush organization system, allowing for more properties such as color and opacity to be saved per-brush and for brushes to be categorized in folders and sub-folders.

It also added brush stroke smoothing, and over brushes created by Kyle T. Webster following Adobe’s acquisition of his website, KyleBrush. Other additions were Lightroom Photo access, Variable font support, select subject, copy-paste layers, enhanced tooltips, panorama and HEIF support, PNG compression, increased maximum zoom level, symmetry mode, algorithm improvements to Face-aware and selection tools, color and luminance range masking, improved image resizing, and performance improvements to file opening, filters, and brush strokes.

Photoshop CC was released on October 15, Beginning with Photoshop CC version This version Introduced a new tool called Frame Tool to create placeholder frames for images. It also added multiple undo mode, auto-commitment, and prevented accidental panel moves with lock work-space. Live blend mode previews are added, allowing for faster scrolling over different blend mode options in the layers panel.

Other additions were Color Wheel, Transform proportionally without Shift key, Distribute spacing like in Illustrator, ability to see longer layer names, match font with Japanese fonts, flip document view, scale UI to font, reference point hidden by default, new compositing engine, which provides a more modern compositing architecture is added which is easier to optimize on all platforms. Photoshop was released on November 4, It added several improvements to the new content-aware fill and to the new document tab.

Also added were animated GIF support, improved lens blur performance and one-click zoom to a layer’s contents. It introduced new swatches, gradients, patterns, shapes and stylistic sets for OpenType fonts. Presets are now more intuitive to use and easier to organize. With the February update version This version improved GPU based lens blur quality and provided performance improvements, such as accelerating workflows with smoother panning, zooming and navigation of documents.

Version 21 was the first version where the iPad version was released. It introduced faster portrait selection, Adobe Camera Raw improvements, auto-activated Adobe Fonts, rotatable patterns, and improved Match Font. This is the first macOS release to run natively on Apple silicon. Content Credentials Beta was introduced. When enabled, the editing information is captured in a tamper-evident form and resides with the file through successive copy generations. It aligns with the C2PA standard on digital provenance across the internet.

The Adobe Photoshop family is a group of applications and services made by Adobe Inc. Several features of the Adobe Photoshop family are pixel manipulating, image organizing, photo retouching, and more.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Raster graphics editing software. For the colloquial verb meaning photograph manipulation, see Photoshop verb. For other uses, see Photoshop disambiguation. For the vector graphics language, see PostScript.

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Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read View source View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons Wikibooks Wikiversity. February 19, ; 32 years ago Windows 10 version and later macOS Raster graphics editor.

Trialware , SaaS.

Но я же ни в чем не виноват. – Ты лжешь. У меня есть доказательство! – Сьюзан встала и подошла к терминалам.  – Помнишь, как ты отключил «Следопыта»? – спросила она, подойдя к своему терминалу.

 
 

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