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Version: Presenter L’avvento degli eBook ha tuttavia sollevato anche una serie di problematiche. Nel tentativo di combattere questa piaga, il 27 maggio l’Alta Corte inglese ha decretato per i 5 grandi fornitori di servizi internet del Regno Unito – BT, EE, Sky, TalkTalk, Virgin Media – l’obbligo di interdire l’accesso a 7 siti internet accusati di offrire in maniera illegale un totale di 10 milioni di eBook [23].

L’Associazione italiana editori Aie , ha recentemente reso noto le impressionanti cifre che testimoniano l’ampia diffusione della pirateria di eBook. Infatti, analizzando i dati, emerge che in Italia, su Coloro che caricano sul web internet illegalmente, non agiscono in maniera disinteressata, ma per guadagnarne.

Chi mette on line file riceve denaro dal servizio hosting, in base alla dimensioni e alle migliaia di scaricamenti. Inoltre, ne ricavano profitto le compagnie pubblicitarie che forniscono le inserzioni ai servizi di hosting e i provider di servizi finanziari attraverso cui i pagamenti possono avvenire anonimamente. La ricerca, condotta in Uk da Kantar Media, rivela che i consumatori di eBook sono quelli che hanno pagato in numero maggiore per i contenuti di cui hanno usufruito rispetto ai consumatori di altro tipo film, musica, videogames ecc.

Altri progetti. Da Wikipedia, l’enciclopedia libera. MonoBehaviour derived components ultimately descend from type Component. Each listener in the list is specified as being of type Component, but thanks to class inheritance and polymorphism, it can really be of any type descended from Component, including MonoBehaviour.

For more information on polymorphism, see Chapter In essence, this means our list of listeners can be a wide mix of different types. If an object expects to be notified about any event, then it must previously have registered itself as a Listener with the NotificationsManager.

I want you to tell me about every occurrence of event X, as and when it happens! ContainsKey NotificationName 06 Listeners. The Sender is a Component reference to the object that should become the registered listener. This is the object that must be notified by the NotificationsManager, if and when the event occurs. NotificationName is a string indicating the custom event type for which the Sender is listening. This is a user-defined string naming the events for our game.

It can be broken into two main stages. First, the function searches through all key values event types in the Dictionary, if there are any.

The argument NotificationName specifies the specific event for which to listen for this Listener, and line 05 calls the method Dictionary.

ContainsKey to see if this event type already has an entry in the Dictionary. AddListener, listening for the same event.

Otherwise, an entry for the event will not be present. Add method, and a new Listener list is instantiated the value , which will hold all listeners for this event. Line If there is an existing entry a matching key in the Dictionary for the event, then there will also be a valid and associated Value object.

So, how would a potential Listener object use the AddListener function in practice to register itself as a Listener for an event with the NotificationsManager? In essence, any script derived from Component or MonoBehaviour would register itself, as shown in Listing Later code samples in this chapter, and in the book, will demonstrate in more depth how to work with the NotificationsManager.

It uses the Start function to register with the NotificationsManager as a Listener for a custom event note: a class only needs to register for an event once. And it also implements an additional method whose name matches the event to listen for. See the next section! Posting Notifications The reason an object registers itself as a listener for an event in the first place is to receive notifications when the event actually happens.

So far, however, the NotificationsManager only implements the AddListener function, which just builds a list of listeners. This posting behavior should be implemented now, through the NotificationsManager. PostNotification method.

This method should be called by any and all classes that cause or detect events. An event has happened. I detected it. The following points break it down. The Sender argument refers to the component or object that first detected or caused the event, and that notifies the NotificationsManager. In other words, this argument will be a reference to the object that invokes or calls the NotificationsManager. PosNotification method. The NotificationsName argument is a user-defined string indicating the event that occurred.

Lines 05 and Here, PostNotification searches the Listener Dictionary keys for a matching event to see whether there are any listeners registered for this event.

PostNotification uses a C ForEach loop to iterate through all registered listeners for this event. Notice that the event element in the Dictionary is accessed using the standard C array syntax: Listeners[NotificationName]. For each registered listener, the SendMessage function is called to notify the object of the event occurrence.

This is the crucial line, notifying an object of an event. The next section considers SendMessage in more detail. The components you create, which are classes, will be your own custom types, typically derived from MonoBehaviour, or from other descendent classes. As such, your classes will support a range of different variables and functions to define their own behavior, making each class specific and unique.

This is to be expected. However, this raises a problem in C , which is a strictly typed language. For example, due to a destructive explosion event in your game, you may want to destroy a batch of different but nearby objects clustered together in the scene, such as enemies, power-ups, props, and maybe even scenery parts.

Maybe some objects play a destruction sound, while others flash red. You simply want to invoke a function in all components across multiple objects, whatever their data type and interface may be. The SendMessage and BroadcastMessage functions both allow you to do this in different ways. For this reason, use them judiciously and in a way that works well with your game. If you find their use to be generally too costly for your game, then consider implementing an event system using C interfaces. This subject will be explored in brief in the final chapter.

MethodName refers to the function name to execute on all components of the specified game object. The Options argument simply specifies what should happen if a component is encountered that has no function with a matching name to execute. DontRequireReceiver means that if a component is found with no matching function to execute, then that component is simply ignored.

RequireReceiver means that if no function is found, an exception or error will be invoked automatically by Unity and will be printed to the console. Usually, SendMessage is all you need to invoke generic behavior on a GameObject without knowing the implementation specifics and interfaces of its components.

If you need multiple objects to simultaneously hide, show, die, move, explode, change color, or do something else, then BroadcastMessage is your friend. For single Components, SendMessage invokes a named function on only the specified Component.

Removing Listeners The NotificationsManager, with the help of AddListener and PostNotification, can now build a list of registered listeners for events, and further notify those listeners when their events happen. But should we do if a Listener no longer wants to be notified about an event?

What if the Listener wants to unregister itself as a listener, removing itself from the Dictionary entirely? But we can easily add support for it.

Consider Listing ContainsKey NotificationName 06 return; 07 www. Notice that this function will not unregister the object as a Listener for all event types, but only for the event type it specifies. The removal process begins in line 09, with a For loop, and terminates at line Take care about the deletion of objects from a list during a loop. The loop in line 09 decrements backward through the list rather than increments forward, because as items are deleted, the list length or size reduces each time, which can invalidate the iterator I, if it increments.

Removing Redundancies The RemoveListener method is useful in cases where an object explicitly removes itself as a Listener from the Dictionary. This is a respectful and tidy way to work, whenever an object no longer wants event notifications. But the possibility remains that a valid Listener object could be deleted from the scene without ever calling RemoveListener to remove itself from the Listener Dictionary.

If that were to happen, the associated entries in the Dictionary for that object would remain intact but become null references and thus be redundant. This could later cause exceptions and errors when methods, such as PostNotification, iterate through all associated listeners, calling SendMessage. It would be problematic because we cannot legitimately call SendMessage on null references, since no object exists to support the function call.

Add Item. Key, Item. Then it regenerates a new Dictionary containing only the valid entries. Together, these constitute the backbone or infrastructure of the event-handling system. With just these methods, we can receive and send event notifications to practically any kind of GameObject and Component in a Unity scene.

This class can also be found in the book companion files, inside the Chapter03 folder. Collections; 05 using System. ContainsKey NotificationName 21 Listeners. The steps for creating this project follow. Remember: get into the habit of using meaningful folder names, to bring organization to your assets As mentioned in earlier sections, the NotificationsManager should be a Singleton object, meaning there should be only one instance of it in memory at any one time.

That instance should last throughout the duration of the scene and beyond, if there are multiple scenes. The details of creating and accessing Singleton objects globally are considered in depth in the next chapter.

Just drag and drop the NotificationsManager onto the Camera object in the scene or onto an empty game object to instantiate the class as a Component. One object will be responsible for detecting user input, such as keyboard button presses, and for notifying the NotificationsManager when such presses happen.

The other object will print a console message, whenever it receives a notification about keyboard input from the NotificationsManager. By default, this variable is assigned and null. We should assign this variable a value directly from the Unity Object Inspector. Notice that Unity is smart enough to detect which component on the source GameObject should be assigned to the Notifications variable in the Object Inspector. The Listener script can be seen in Listing Notice in Listing that a correspondence exists between the two classes, Poster and Listener, regarding the event name as a string.

Simply play the scene and press any key on the keyboard. You could, of course, add more listener instances to the scene, and the NotificationsManager would update those objects, too! This class is general in the ultimate sense that it stands apart from any particular game project, and has wider relevance to practically every game project imaginable, including CMOD. Its purpose is to centrally receive a single notification from any object in a Unity scene that detects and causes events.

Each level features multiple Cash Power-Ups, and when all of these are collected without the Player dying, the level is classified as complete.

Second, a weapon-upgrade power-up that equips the Player with the gun weapon. Third, an ammo-restore power-up to replenish the gun ammo back to maximum. And fourth, a health-restore power-up to restore Player health back to maximum. All four of these power-ups will be collected and applied when the Player collides with or walks into them. The power-ups will be created as a Prefab objects, with scripts attached, for easy reuse Creating the Cash Power-Up The first power-up to address is perhaps the most significant in terms of general game-mechanics, namely the Cash Power-Up.

When all Cash Power-Ups are collected, the level is completed. As with the environment pieces configured in Chapter 2, we could make the power-up by simply dragging and dropping sprite instances into the scene, one sprite for each power-up instance, and then customize each one with scripted components, one at a time.

So to start creating the Cash Power-Up, open the main atlas texture for the game in the Project panel, and drag and drop the Cash Power-Up sprite from the texture into the scene hierarchy. This tool was explored in Chapter 2, for creating sprite objects. Specifically, the Cash Power-Up looks like a cardboard cutout, completely flat. A sprite is supposed to be 2D.

This is usually not a problem for 2D games that have fixed orthographic cameras always focused on one side or aspect of the sprite, but when you mix 2D and 3D together, as in CMOD, the flatness of sprites can become troublesome in this way. Consequently, they look like cardboard cutouts One way to fix this is to code a Billboard. When you add any code to a sprite, forcing it to rotate so that it always directly faces the camera as it moves around in the level, you create a Billboard. It always rotates in synch with the camera so that the camera sees the sprite head-on.

Then add this class as a component of the sprite object in the scene see Listing Rotate, or Transform. These members and functions can be accessed easily for any component on a game GameObject by referencing its internal property, known as transform lowercase t.

The main problem with the code is that, during Update, a reference to transform is being made, which is a C property and not a member variable. This means that every call to transform indirectly invokes a function Property , which returns a reference to the Transform component. Remember, C properties were covered in depth in the previous chapter. Because transform is a property, there is a small optimization we can perform, known as Cached Transforms.

Consider the refined Billboard class in Listing , which uses Cached Transforms. ThisTransform is a member variable and not a property, and gives us direct and immediate access to the transform component. Consequently, by using ThisTransform instead of transform on Update functions, we can reduce additional and unnecessary functional calls on every frame. This may initially seem a www. Using Cached Transforms, we can achieve this rotation in only a few lines of code.

Listing shows the complete Billboard class. LookRotation -LookAtDir. The Billboard rotation code occurs inside LateUpdate and not Update. In short, LateUpdate is always called after Update. This is important, especially for cameras or objects that track the movement of other objects. For the Billboard, our sprite rotates based on camera movement. If that happens, then our Billboard rotation will be invalidated because the camera will have moved since for that frame.

If we use LateUpdate however, all update and movement functionality for the camera will have finalized before rotating the Billboard, allowing us use the latest camera position.

Here we use vector subtraction, subtracting the power-up position as a Vector3 from the camera position as a Vector3 to produce a resultant vector, expressing the difference between the two.

This vector, in essence, describes the direction in which the power-up would have to be looking to face the camera. This line of code does not change the rotation of the sprite. It simply calculates the direction in which the sprite should be looking. Here we actually set the sprite rotation based on the LookAtDir vector calculated in the previous line.

A quaternion structure is generated to describe the rotation a sprite must go through to be looking in the desired direction. Quaternions are specialized mathematical structures that describe orientation. They are a set of numbers telling you which way an object is oriented in 3D space.

Spend less time looking inside them, and more time looking at how to use them. Go ahead and attach the Billboard component script to the Cash Power-Up sprite in the scene. When you do this, the sprite will now turn to face the camera as it moves during gameplay. In short, typical functions in Unity and C act synchronously. This means that, when an event like Start calls a function in a class, the function performs its behavior sequentially, line by line from top to bottom, and then finally terminates at the end, returning a value.

When the function returns, the calling event will resume its execution at the next line. They act like they are asynchronous although they are not truly so. Consider the following Listing , which uses a coroutine; comments follow. Log i. Both of these lines declare a coroutine. Notice that many Unity events, like Start, can be declared as a coroutine.

They need not always return void. Coroutines are always declared with an IEnumerator return type, and they always feature a yield statement somewhere in their body. Technically, a function that returns a type of IEnumerator and has a yield statement in its body is a coroutine. So in Listing , both Start and Counter are coroutines. In this class, the Start coroutine is invoked automatically by Unity, just as it invokes the normal Start event, but line 10 invokes a coroutine manually.

Notice that a coroutine cannot be called like a regular function. Instead, the function StartCoroutine must be used to initiate the specified coroutine. This demonstrates the asynchronous behavior of coroutines. In the world of coroutines, yield break is equivalent to return null in the world of functions. In other words, yield break terminates the coroutine at that line, and any subsequent lines if there are any will not be executed. This terminates execution of the coroutine for the current frame, but the coroutine will resume at the next line on the next frame.

This yield WaitForSeconds statement works like a Sleep function. In Listing , yield WaitForSeconds is used to suspend execution of the coroutine for 1 second before resuming on the next line. Since this statement is called inside a For loop, it executes once on each iteration. To do that, consider the revised code, as shown in Listing With this code, line 13 will not be executed until the Counter coroutine has ended.

Before moving on, I recommend playing around with coroutines. These should be familiar to us. In line 16 we declare a private ThisTransform object to cache the GameObject transform, ready to use either during coroutines or Update functions.

The Travel coroutine is used to move the power-up up and down. This vector represents the starting direction in which an object should move for the specified distance TravelDistance declared in line 13 and at the specified Speed declared in line This vector should be in a normalized form.

By normalized here, I mean MoveDir is expected to use the values of 0 or 1 to indicate direction. Thus, if an object should move upward on the Y axis, the MoveDir vector would be 0,1,0. Movement on X would be 1,0,0 , and on Z would be 0,0,1. Power-up objects should move up and down endlessly in a loop.

This is where that high-level functionality happens. On reaching the destination, the Travel coroutine completes, and MoveDir is inverted again. So 0,-1,0 becomes 0,1,0 , and then the object moves up, and so on. Thus, through repeated inversion, we achieve PingPong. The Travel coroutine is responsible moving the power-up object from its current world space position, in the direction of MoveDir, at a specified speed, and until the total distance traveled exceeds TravelDistance.

This is achieved especially with line 46, which calculates the amount to move in the direction MoveDir for the current frame. The next section discusses deltaTime further. If objects move or animate or change, then time is necessarily involved since every change must occur at a specified moment and at a specified speed. For an object to change, it must have been in a different state at an earlier time; otherwise, no change could be said to have occurred now.

Thus, to represent any kind of change in-game, a concept and measure of time is needed. Measuring time has been problematic in games, however, historically speaking. Many older games measured time in terms of frames, but this resulted in performance inconsistency across hardware, because different computers could sustain different frame rates, and at different times. The result was that no two users on different computers could be guaranteed the same experience, even if they started playing the same game at the same time.

So nowadays, many games measure time in a hardware-independent way, namely in terms of seconds. And Unity offers many such time-measuring features through the Time class. An important member variable of the Time class, which updates on each frame, is deltaTime. Specifically, the variable deltaTime expresses how much time in seconds has elapsed since the previous frame. For this reason, because video games typically display many frames per second, this value will almost always be a fractional value between 0 and 1, such as 0.

A value of 0. Normally, larger values such as 1, and 2, and 3 are indicative of lag and problems in your game, because the hardware is clearly unable to sustain higher frame rates that would necessarily result in lower deltaTime values. Consider, for example, a GameObject such as a spaceship that should travel in a straight line. One way to implement this behavior without deltaTime would be as shown in Listing Over time, this will cause the spaceship to move.

The problem, however, is that the speed of the spaceship entirely depends on the frequency with which Update is called. The more frequently Update is called, the faster the spaceship will move. Of course, we know in advance that Update is called on each and every frame, but frame rates differ across computers and even on the same computer at different times. For this reason, the code in Listing will result in a spaceship that travels at different speeds on different computers, and even at different times on the same computer.

But typically, we do care because we want to have some degree of control and understanding about the kind of experience gamers will have when they play our game. Now, we can solve this problem using deltaTime.

Consider the following code in Listing , which improves on Listing Further, we know that deltaTime expresses time as a fraction, based on how much time has elapsed since the previous frame. This allows you to move the spaceship not only a constant speed during gameplay, but a constant speed between different computers. The lesson here, then, is for moving objects use deltaTime!

This means we can now move further with the Cash Power-Up. So, back in the Unity Editor, just drag and drop the www. It exhibits Billboard functionality using the Billboard class, and also bobs gently up and down to accentuate its collectability, thanks to the PingPongDistance class. But all of these behaviors are essentially cosmetic features, and none of them actually make the power-up collectible.

And the player collects the power-up simply by walking through it. That is, by colliding with it. So, before getting started at implementing this, make sure Collider Visibility is enabled for the Scene viewport, allowing us to see colliders when we create them. If disabled, no colliders will be visible After Collider visibility is enabled, add a new BoxCollider component to the power-up object in the scene. Once added, use the collider Size property, in the Object Inspector, to size the collider, surrounding the power-up and leaving some margin of space around the fringes.

Be careful to give the collider some depth, too, even though the power-up object is really a flat sprite. For this object, and all power-ups, we want Unity to notify us explicitly in the script as and when collisions occur between the Player and Power-Ups, so we can respond appropriately, such as by removing the power-up object from the scene and increasing the collected cash score. But we can easily configure the collider to do so. Handling Collision Events: Getting Started By using the Collider component of an object as a trigger volume, Unity can send all components on an object an event call for each and every unique collision, allowing us to code custom responses to the events when they happen.

Be sure to add this script as a component of the Cash Power-Up in the scene. A good start for this class might look like Listing The Cash Power-Up declares three variables, of which one is private. CashAmount is a float expressing how much cash should be awarded to the player when the power-up is collected. This allows us to specify different values for each power-up, if we need to.

The Clip variable will specify which audio file to play when the power-up is collected. This file is included in the book companion files, but you can use any audio file you want. This component acts like a media player. For Unity game objects with Trigger components, the OnTriggerEnter event is fired for the object when either a RigidBody object or another collider, such as the Player character, moves inside the trigger area or volume.

The extents of the trigger are defined by the BoxCollider. There is also a partner OnTriggerExit event, which is invoked when the collider leaves the trigger volume. Cannot collide with enemies 32 if!

PlayOneShot Clip, 1. SetActive false ; 39 www. The Start event demonstrates an important and useful function in Unity, namely GameObject.

Thankfully, however, this power-up has been coded so that if no such object is present, the power-up will simply not play a sound on collection, as opposed to throwing an error or exception. The OnTriggerEnter function is inherited from Component, and is executed automatically by Unity as an event, whenever a collision is detected with the trigger.

Here is where we should code a response to collision events. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. Necessary Necessary. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. These cookies ensure basic functionalities and security features of the website, anonymously. The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category “Analytics”. The cookies is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category “Necessary”.

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Maya Keyboard Shortcuts, Hotkeys & Commands Guide | Autodesk


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